Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University <p>Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University (LRUJ) is a national journal promoting and publicizing quality academic articles, thesis articles and research articles from scholars, lecturers, and students in the fields of humanities and social sciences and interdisciplinary in humanities and social sciences. Its span includes anthropology, communication arts, journalism, economics, business administration and management, history, jurisprudence, political science, sociology, linguistics, social development, and community development. Accepted articles will be assessed by 3 peer reviewers from Loei Rajabhat University and other educational institutes under a double-blind peer revision scheme.</p> <p><strong>Publication period</strong>: 4 issues a year; 1<sup>st</sup> issue (January-March); 2<sup>nd</sup> issue (April-June); 3<sup>rd</sup> issue (July-September); and 4<sup>th</sup> issue (October-December)</p> en-US Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2774-1109 <p>ข้อความที่ปรากฎในวารสารฉบับนี้เป็นความคิดเห็นของผู้เขียนแต่ละท่าน สถาบันวิจัยและพัฒนา มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏเลย และกองบรรณาธิการ ไม่จำเป็นต้องเห็นด้วยและไม่มีส่วนรับผิดชอบใดๆ</p> <p>สถาบันวิจัยและพัฒนา มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏเลย ขอให้ผู้อ่านอ้างอิงในกรณีที่ท่านคัดลอกเนื้อหาบทความในวารสารฉบับนี้</p> Tourism Attraction Carrying Capacity Assessment in Mae Ngao National Park, Mae Hong Son Province <p> This research aimed to assess the carrying capacity of tourist attractions in Mae Ngao National Park, Mae Hong Son Province. For supporting the number of of tourists who come to use the service within the Mae Ngao National Park. Data collection was conducted by assessing the physical carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, ecological carrying capacity and social-psychological carrying capacity. From the study, it was found that physical carrying capacity can accommodate 94,365 persons/year. Facility carrying capacity can accommodate 316,629 persons / year. From the statistics of the number of tourists from 2017-2020, it was found that in 2018, the number of tourists was the most at 9,217 persons. Accounted for 9.77 percent of physical carrying capacity. And 2.91% of the facility carrying capacity. Which has little impact or the number of tourists is still lower than the carrying capacity both of two these sides. For bio-physical or ecological carrying capacity found that root cover emerged at 34.62 %. This was at a medium level of root exposure severity. The vegetation cover studied from sapling showed that <em>Eurya acuminata</em> DC. was highly impacted <em>while Acronychia pedunculata</em> (L.) Miq. was impacted at a severe level. In the case of seedling, it was found that <em>Litsea </em>sp. was at a high level of impact, and <em>Pavetta tomentosa</em> Roxb. ex Sm. was at a severe level of impact. Lastly, the results of social-psychological carrying capacity assessment collected by using questionnaire revealed. That the informants perceived the crowding of tourist visiting at Mae Ngao National Park at a low level (14.70%). The number of tourists does not exceed the social-psychological carrying capacity.</p> Chawalit Aphihirantrakun Torlarp Kamyo Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 41 51 Improvement in Accessibility to Professional Development Welfare of Persons with Disabilities by Social Network: A Case Study of the Association of the Blind and Persons with Disabilities, Roi-Et Province <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This research held a research question that how did the Association of the Blind and Persons with Disabilities improve the professional development of persons with disabilities in Roi-Et province? This research used in-depth interview to gather information from representatives from the Association of the Blind and Disability person Roi-Et province, local government officials from the Nonchaisri sub-district, Ponthong district, Roi-Et province, officials from the Social Development and Human Security Office, Roi-Et province, and officials from the Department of Skill Development, Roi-Et province. The gathered information then was analyzed along with information from secondary research and documents.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results found that the Association of the Blind and Persons with Disabilities helped improved the professional development of persons with disabilities in Roi-Et province. Persons with disabilities could access to professional development via the association’s programs. The association had 2 main roles, which were creating of database of persons with disabilities and following up and looking out for benefits of persons with disabilities disability person in Roi-Et province. Moreover, with the association’s assistance, the persons with disabilities could: 1) access to funding of 50,000 bath per year for skill development trainings from 3 government departments (the Social Development and Human Security, Skill Development, and the local government of Nonchaisri sub-district, Ponthong district, Roi-Et province; and 2) access to loans without interests (for 5 years) from the Career Development for Persons with Disabilities Fund for a career setup, which was coordinated by the association to ensure that the loans used for career advancement and better earning of persons with disabilities.</p> Weerachai Arsarin Ajirapa Pienkhuntod Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 93 99 The Expectation of Impact and Preparation for Adjustment According to the Eastern Economic Corridor Policy of Establishments in Laem Chabang Industrial Estate <p> This research aimed to study the expectation of impact and preparation for adjustment of entrepreneurs. As well as studying the relationship of the preparation and expectation. A total of 30 voluntary samples were selected from a total of 144 sites. The results showed that 66.70 percent of all samples expected that they would not be affected and that they saw a positive trend. At the same time, large industries still have concerns about unpredictable earnings from higher competition. And the capital constraints of small industries prevent this opportunity to expand an investment. As for the preparation, it was found that the establishments were quite prepared to review and prepare plans, labor skill development. But at the same time, the results point to the lack of readiness to adapt to research and development of technology and innovation, especially in small and medium industries. The results of the study correlation of the preparation and expectation. What was clearly found was that although most operators were expected to be unaffected, they did not ignore the upcoming developments. But most of the smaller industries are less prepared compared to other industries. This led to suggestions that the government should have different approaches to promote or provide assistance to reduce obstacles, different restrictions, and to enable entrepreneurs to continue their business, which is another way to promote the country's economy.</p> Chiraporn Wongsaen Chiraphan Kuladilok Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 1 11 Managerial Accounting Principles Implementation on Performance Effectiveness of Director of Financial Division Sub-District Municipality in the Upper North–Eastern Area <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The purpose of this research was to examine the relation and the effect of managerial accounting principles implementation with the performance effectiveness of director of financial division sub-district municipality in the upper north-eastern area. &nbsp;A questionnaire was used to collect data from 175 director of financial division. The statistics used for the data analysis were percentage, mean, standard division, multiple correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The findings showed that: 1) the managerial accounting principles implementation in part of communication had positive relationships with and effects on performance effectiveness; and 2) the managerial accounting principles implementation in part of information had positive relationships with and effects on performance effectiveness. Therefore, director of financial division should focus on managerial accounting principles implementation for success in managerial performance.</p> Mintila Tuengfang Nutcharee Pitak Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 12 19 Presentation of Semiotic Thainess Through the Content of Tourism Authority of Thailand’s Online Marketing Video Clip <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The objective of this research was to study the format of presenting the semiotic Thainess through the content of the Tourism Authority of Thailand's online marketing video clip. This research is a qualitative research using content analysis method and data were collected by analyzing content from the Tourism Authority of Thailand's YouTube website, Amazing Thailand, amounting to 10 topics with the number of more than 500,000 views. The results of the study found that: 1) the content style of the semiotic Thainess can be divided into 9 forms: (1) Thai food, (2) Thai art, (3) Thai way of life, (4) Thai wellness, (5) Thai Events &amp; Festivals, (6) Thai wisdom, (7) Thai fun, (8) Thai animals, and (9) Thai vehicles; 2) the style of the music and the music for the advertisement has a fast rhythm and fun, in harmony with the personality of the Thai people including Thai musical instruments mixed to convey the uniqueness of each region; 3) Language and text styles use repetitions and rhyming words according to the structure of the Thai language for easy recognition including the use of local language to convey the identity of each region; and 4) The narrative style uses the plot and main themes about love during travel, travel to relax from work to get a different experience from tourism, use the scenes of beautiful tourist attractions in Thailand, and use special symbols to correspond and convey the main idea of ​​the story. The results of this research can be used as a guideline for those involved in designing advertising media for tourism marketing to present a Thai identity to be easily remembered and to encourage more travel in the country.</p> Thanathorn Santichat Phitak Siriwong Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 20 29 Gastronomy Tourism Potential of Atsamart Community, Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand <p>The purpose of this research was to study the Gastronomy Tourism Potential of Atsamart Community by In-dept interviews and focus group discussion with the main informants which are government agencies, private sector and community leader. The result found that; The Pros of Atsamart Community Nakhon Phanom Province has the unique identity&nbsp; of Thai Sak Tribe which are living in the city area which is very comfort to go around. These community has an eating culture that relies on natural ingredients which are fresh and safe. The traditional and culture has been accepted by tourist. But in terms of areas that should be developed, it was image of the foods which has no identity to create the encouragement for the people in the area. The guidelines for developing the potential of food tourism are: To create a body of knowledge about the local food that is unique to the community, vegetables and herbs are available in the community for cooking and can build immunity for the tourists. To encourage the design of food packaging that is unique and reflects the identity of local communities along the Mekong River. Which the relevant should be encouraged to develop products, leading food tourism activities. &nbsp;The variety of ingredients, foods and cooking process by using the community ingredients as a main selling point. Training of Photography Technology and food reviews through online media to tell the story of the food tourism potential of the community may be able to provide tourists in the future.</p> Chirabhorn Phomthep Dudsadee Chuaysook Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 30 40 Managing the Service Quality Gap of the Multinational Corporation Hotel Business Group at Hua Hin District, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province Amid the Crisis of the Third Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This research aimed to: 1) study problems and limitations in the service quality management of hotel business groups of multinational corporations; and 2) analysis of service quality gap of the multinational hotel business. It is qualitative research using the phenomenological method. Data were collected through in-depth interviews from key informants who are experienced in hotel human resource management and development from five international hotel business groups, totaling 10 people. The finding found that: 1) Manpower reduction to maintain hotel costs, caused the problem of an insufficient number of service providers to service; and 2) The need of preparation to manage the gaps in the five aspects of service quality, which are: 2.1) the opinions of the clients that the hotel collected data on behaviour to be used to forecast and define service models; 2.2) design of service standards by implementing public health measures, both SHA: Amazing Thailand Safety &amp; Health and each international network; 2.3) the potential of service providing through Work From Home and promoting the performance of service providers with the principles of Reskills and Upskills; 2.4) communication with public relations via social media along with the promotion activities with the government; and 2.5) on the perception of satisfaction through the form to collect comments on the service and survey information through the general website group.</p> Phrutsaya Piyanusorn Rachanon Taweephol Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 52 63 Sustainable Community-Based Tourism Resilience After the Covid-19 Pandemic of Ban Hua Aow Community, Sampran, Nakhon Pathom <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The research aimed to study community – based tourism components of Ban Hua Aow community, Sampran, Nakhon Pathom and to study sustainable and strengthening community-based tourism resilience throughout the COVID–19 pandemic and beyond of Ban Hua Aow community, Sampran, Nakhon Pathom. This research is qualitative research using phenomenological methods. The data were collected by group interview from 12 key informants by purposive sampling from tourism stakeholders in the Ban Hua Aow community. Its instrument used for data collection include: in-depth interview and do a thematic analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results indicated as follows; Ban Hua Ao community had community – based tourism components that were: natural tourism resources and cultural aspect that emphasized organic farming, lifestyles that relied on nature; community aspect, local people formed a group of Ban Hua Aow Organic Agriculture Community Enterprise with Ban Hua Aow Organic Agriculture Learning Center was the center of Ban Hua Aow community – based tourism; management aspect, the community was managed by the village committee, there were criteria for joining organic farming community enterprises have been established and the benefits of community-based tourism were managed; also, learning aspect, focusing on creating mutual learning among local people and tourists about organic farming according to the Sufficiency Agriculture Philosophy.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The resilience of sustainable community-based tourism management after the COVID–19 situation of Ban Hua Aow communities found that local people have been cope with the COVID-19 situation effectively and promptly. They have followed and lock down themselves in their area but still carried on his own agriculture. For adaptation, they installed screening points, registration points, temperature measurement points and measured to wear a face mask at all times. Furthermore, they transformed the distribution of organic products by adding more online distribution channels, encouraged local people to take part in becoming a member of the organic farming community enterprise and raised awareness of hygiene and sanitation safety for them in preparation for the arrival of tourists.</p> Pimchanok Mulmit Phitak Siriwong Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 64 74 The Analysis of Folktales and Folk Media of Loei Province <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The research titled “The Analysis of Folktales and Folk Media of Loei Province” was aimed to 1) analyze the folktales and folk media in Loei Province and 2) to analyze the content related to morality and ethnics in folktales and folk media in Loei Province. The data was gathered from related document and field data in 5 districts including Mueang Loei district, Wang Saphung district, Chiang Khan district, Dansai district, and Phuluang district in Loei Province. The population and the target group were 15 subjects who were local philosophers and Buddhist monks. The research tools comprised semi-constructed and unconstructed interviews whereas the data was analyzed using the concepts of folk literature, folk media and morality and ethnics. Descriptive analysis was used to present the research results.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research results were as follows.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 1.&nbsp; There were 63 folktales found in Loei province which were classified into 8 types as follows:&nbsp; 1) miracle tales, 2) life tales, 3) folktales and local legends, 4) explanatory tales, 5) Merry tales 6) animal tales, 7) moral tales and 8) ghost tales and the folk media in Loei Province was classified into 5 types as follows. 1) traditions and ceremonies are Phraya Chang – Nang Phom Hom worshipping tradition, Pha Sad Loi Kror ceremony, Chao Pha Rom Khao Worshipping ceremony, Lord Buddha’s Footprint water sprinkling ceremony on Phra Putthabat Phu Kwain Ngeon temple, Phrathat Si Song Rak Homage-Paying Fair, Phu Ang Lang and Phu Pha Dad worshipping tradition, Phi Ta Khon festival, and Phi Khon Nam tradition. 2) Folk plays are Tai Dam plays such as Mai Jaeng Jae, Siang Tai, Sae Pang, and Maeang Tab Tao Tai-Loei (Morlam Tai-Loei).&nbsp; 3) Costume is Tai-Dam costume. &nbsp;4) Household appliances and handicrafts were Tum of Tai Dam. And,&nbsp; 5) Mural Arts are mural arts at Mahathat Temple, Tha Kok temple, Si Khun Mueang temple in Chiang Khan district and Phon Chai temple and Neramit Wipassana temple in Dansai Distrcit.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2. Morality and ethnics in folktales can be classified into 14 types including 1) kindness and compassion and do no harm to the others, 2) gratitude and honesty, 3) truthfulness and polite speech,&nbsp; 4) disciplinary 5) sacrifice, charity and sharing, 6) cooperation, 7) effort, endurance and patience, 8) justice, 9) diligence, right means of livelihood and responsibility, 10) greediness, 11) courage and intelligence,&nbsp; 12) householding principles, 13) doing good things, and 14) forgiveness.Morality and ethnics in folk Media can be classified into 5 types as follows. 1) morality in traditions and ceremonies are responsibility, cooperation, sacrifice, honesty, royalty, disciplinary, belief and faith. 2) Morality and ethnics in folk plays are belief and faith and cooperation. 3) Morality and ethics in Tai-Dam costume are diligence, endurance, responsibility, disciplinary, and patience. 4) Morality and ethnics in household appliances and handicrafts are diligence and endurance, responsibility, belief and faith. And, 5) Morality and ethnics in mural arts are the Ten Great Birth Stories of the Buddha (10-virtue practice), Phra Vessantara Jataka (act of generosity) Phra Malai Kam Luang (doing good and bad things).The morality and ethnics in folktales and folk media identify the value for the new generations to conserve, inherit, and transfer to children and youths in Loei province in different forms related to the changing context of the present society.</p> Warangkhana Taweewan Patcharee Srichok Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 75 83 The Guidance to Develop Capabilities and Competitiveness of Community Businesses to Support Community Economies Toward Stability and Sustainability: A Case Study of Community Businesses in Kap Choeng District, Surin Province <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This research aimed to analyze strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, and propose the guidance to enhance capabilities and competitiveness of community businesses in Kap Choeng District, Surin Province. The researchers used in-depth interview and observation as data collecting tools combining 10 key informants of group leaders, boards or representative members, and focus group discussion involving 15 representatives. From descriptive data analysis, the researchers found that the strengths were their abundant self-owning materials for production, acquirement of community business product standard certification, and profound experience in production of the members. The weaknesses were their lack of products variety, public relation, distribution channels, and knowledge in product development. Their opportunities were our late consumer trend toward local products, government institution support, community business network building, and increasing numbers of OTOP centers. Their threats were the ease of product imitation, raw material costs, lack of support from government institutions, and large number of competitors. The guidance to develop community businesses by internal factors included extension of products toward variety and identity, increasing marketing channels, product value adding, public relation, enhancement of members skills and knowledge, and community business network formation. Finally, the development of community businesses by external factors included establishment of community business alliances, stimulating outside interaction, along with collaborative integration with government institutions.</p> Navarat Nithichaianan Thumnong Chidchob Copyright (c) 2022 Research and Development Journal, Loei Rajabhat University 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 17 59 84 92