Effect of Salinity on Chlorella vulgaris for Increasing Lipid Content

Main Article Content

Thaniya Kaosol
Vicheka Keo


Microalgae growth with effluent from the frozen seafood wastewater treatment plant can provide some benefits such as produce high biomass and lipid for biodiesel production. Chlorella vulgaris was considered as the best feedstock of energy to produce biodiesel. The objective of this study was to increase lipid content under salinity stress. There were three reactors including R1, R2 and R3 for cultivating microalgae. The R1 used the effluent of seafood processing wastewater treatment plant without adding the NaCl. The R2 and R3 were added with the NaCl for increasing the salinity. The various NaCl concentrations of R1, R2 and R3 were 1.34 g/L (0.023 M of NaCl), 2.9 g/L (0.050 M of NaCl) and 4.4 g/L (0.075 M of NaCl), respectively. In this study, the Chlorella vulgaris growth in R1 and R2 was reached the maximum of dry cell weight (DCW) about 1.02 g/L and 1.16 g/L on Day-3, respectively. While the Chlorella vulgaris growth in R3 was reached the maximum of DCW about 1.47 g/L on Day-4. The total lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris was increased in different concentration of salinity. The total lipid content in R2 was lower than in R3, of which R2 and R3 contained 1.84% and 3.09% of lipid content, respectively. However, both reactors were lower than the lipid content of R1 which was 4.60% of lipid content. It could be concluded that the lipid content in Chlorella vulgaris strain was enhanced slightly between various concentrations of salinity. Therefore, the effluent from frozen seafood industry was suitable for growth Chlorella vulgaris without adding NaCl. The salinity content in the effluent from frozen seafood industry (0.023 M of NaCl) was enough for microalgae growth and the nutrient contained in the effluent, was also removed from microalgae cultivation.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


Veronesi, D., Idà, A., D’Imporzano, G. and Adani, F. 2015. Microalgae cultivation: nutrient recovery from digestate for producing algae biomass. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 43: 1201-1206.

Chi, N.T.L., Duc, P.A., Mathimani, T. and Pugazhendhi, A. 2019. Evaluating the potential of green alga Chlorella sp. for high biomass and lipid production in biodiesel viewpoint. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 17: 184-188.

Chui, S.Y., Kao, C.Y., Chen, T.Y., Chang, Y.B., Kuo, C.M. and Lin, C.S. 2015. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource. Bioresource Technology, 184: 179-189. 9th

Gonçalves, A.L., Pire, J.C. and Simões, M. 2013. Lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 4(1): 1-6.

Danquah, M.K., Gladman, B., Moheimani, N., and Forde, G.M. 2009. Microalgal growth characteristics and subsequent influence on dewatering efficiency. Chemical Engineering Journal, 151: 73-78.

Wu, Y.H., Hu, H.Y., Yu, Y., Zhang, T.Y., Zhu, S.F., Zhuang, L.L., Zhang, X., and Lu, Y. 2014. Microalgal species for sustainable biomass/lipid production using wastewater as resource: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 33, 675-688.

Daneshvar, E., Santhosh, C., Antikainen, E. and Bhatnagar, A. 2018. Microalgal growth and nitrate removal efficiency in different cultivation conditions: Effect of macro and micronutrients and salinity. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 6(2): 1848-1854.

Shin, Y.S., Choi, H.I., Choi, J.W., Lee, J.S., Sung, Y.J. and Sim, S.J. 2018. Multilateral approach on enhancing economic viability of lipid production from microalgae: A review. Bioresource Technology, 258: 335-344.

Yoo, C., Jun, S.Y., Lee, J.Y., Ahn, C.Y. and Oh, H.M. 2009. Selection of microalgae for lipid production under high levels carbon dioxide. Bioresource Technology, 101: S71-S74.

Kebeish, R., El-Ayouty, Y. and Hussein, A. 2014. Effect of salinity on biochemical traits and photosynthesis-related gene transcription in Chlorella vulgaris. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 54(2): 281-294.

Ben Moussa-Dahmen, I., Chtourou, H., Rezgui, F., Sayadi, S. and Dhouib, A. 2016. Salinity stress increases lipid, secondary metabolites and enzyme activity in Amphora subtropica and Dunaliella sp. for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 218: 816-825.

Mohan, S.V. and Devi, M.P. 2014. Salinity stress induced lipid synthesis to harness biodiesel during dual mode cultivation of mixotrophic microalgae. Bioresource Technology, 165: 288-294.

Ishika, T., Moheimani, N.R., and Bahri, P.A. 2017. Sustainable saline microalgae co-cultivation for biofuel production: A critical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78: 356-368.

Jayashree, C., Tamilarasan, K., Rajkumar, M., Arulazhagan, P., Yogalakshmi, K.N., Srikanth, M. and Banu, J.R. 2016. Treatment of seafood processing wastewater using upflow microbial fuel cell for power generation and identification of bacterial community in anodic biofilm. Journal of Environmental Management, 180: 351-358.

Guimarães, J.T., Souza, A.L.M., Brígida, A.I.S., Furtado, A.A.L., Chicrala, P.C.M.S., Santos, V.R.V., Rosiana, R.A., Luiz, D.B. and Mesquita, E.F.M. 2018. Quantification and characterization of effluents from the seafood processing industry aiming at water reuse: A pilot study. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 26: 138-145.

Folch, J., Lees, M., and Sloane Stanley, G.H. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226(1): 497-509.

Adenan, N. S., Yusoff, F. M. and Shariff, M. 2013. Effect of salinity and temperature on the growth of diatoms and green algae. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 8(2): 397-404.

Ahmad, A., Buang, A. and Bhat, A.H. 2016. Renewable and sustainable bioenergy production from microalgal co-cultivation with palm oil mill effluent (POME): A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 65: 214-234.

Sajjadi, B., Chen, W.Y., Raman, A.A.A. and Ibrahim, S. 2018. Microalgae lipid and biomass for biofuel production: A comprehensive review on lipid enhancement strategies and their effects on fatty acid composition. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 97: 200-232.

Mandalam, R. K. and Palsso, B. 1995. Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorellaceae) does not secrete autoinhibitors at high cell densities. American Journal of Botany, 82(8): 955-963.

Church, J., Hwang, J.H., Kim, K.T., McLean, R., Oh, Y.K., Nam, B., Joo, J.C. and Lee, W.H. 2017. Effect of salt type and concentration on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris in synthetic saline wastewater for biofuel production. Bioresource Technology, 243: 147-153.

Kebeish, R., EI-Aouty, Y. and Hussein, A. 2014. Effect of salinity on biochemical traits and photosynthesis-related gene transcription in Chlorella vugaris. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 54(2): 281-294.

Yun, C.J., Hwang, K.O., Han, S.S. and Ri, H.G. 2019. Effect of salinity stress on the biofuel production potential of freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris YH703. Biomass and Bioenergy, 127: 1-7.

Hu, Q., Sommerfeld, M., Jarvis, E., Ghirardi, M., Posewitz, M., Seibert, M. and Darzins, A. 2008. Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances. The Plant Journal, 54: 621-639.

Thompson, G.A. 1996. Lipids and membrane function in green algae. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta, 1302:


Bajwa, K. and Bishnoi, N.R. 2015. Osmotic stress induced by salinity for lipid overproduction in batch culture of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and effect on others physiological as well as physicochemical attributes. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization, 6(4): 26-34.

Sreesai, S. and Pakpain, P. 2007. Nutrient recycling by Chlorella vulgaris from septage effluent of the Bangkok city, Thailand. Science Asia, 33: 293-299.

Khoo, C.G., Woo, M.H., Yury, N., Lam, M.K. and Lee, K.T. 2017. Dual role of Chlorella vulgaris in wastewater treatment for biodiesel production: growth optimization and nutrients removal study. Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, 96(8): 290-299.

Cuellar-Bermudez, S.P., Aleman-Nava, G.S., Chandra, R., Garcia-Perez, J.S., Contreras-Angulo, J.R., Markou, G., Muylaert, K., Rittamann, B.E. and Parra-Saldivar, R. 2017. Nutrients utilization and contaminants removal: A review of two approaches of algae and cyanobacteria in wastewater. Algal Research, 24: 438-449.

Pal, D., Khozin-Goldberg, I., Cohen, Z. and Boussiba, S. 2011. The effect of light, salinity, and nitrogen availability on lipid production by Nannochloropsis sp. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology, 90(4): 1429-1441.