Heavy Metals in Sediments and Water at the Chao Phraya River Mouth, Thailand

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Varinporn Asokbunyarat
Sanya Sirivithayapakorn


Sediment and water samples collected from 20 sampling stations located in the Chao Phraya River Mouth, Thailand during 2017 and 2019 were analyzed for concentrations of mercury (Hg) as well as other heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). The results indicated that the enriched concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb) were observed in sediments of the Chao Phraya River Mouth during 2017 and 2019. The higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in the suspended sediment in comparison to the bottom sediment. The concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb) in water of the Chao Phraya River Mouth during 2017 and 2019 were lower than the coastal water quality standard in Thailand. Because of the high freshwater inflow and the discharge of low amount of heavy metals in the treated industrial effluent to the Chao Phraya River, the high levels of heavy metals in sediments of the Chao Phraya River Mouth might be caused by weathering of rock, sediment transport and deposition within the Chao Phraya River Basin. The spatial variation of heavy metals in sediments of the Chao Phraya River was existed, due to adsorption and co-precipitation of dissolved heavy metals onto sediments and aggregation-sedimentation of suspended sediment during transport. The seasonal variation of dissolved heavy metals in water of the Chao Phraya River Mouth was observed, due to accumulation and release of dissolved heavy metals from sediments.


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