Main Article Content
This research evaluated the wastewater and sludge characteristics, and material flows in Nongkhaem Water Environment Control Plant. The constituent removal efficiencies of the wastewater treatment plant and human health risks (for children and adults) caused by sludge utilization were determined. The results from the Material Flow Analysis showed that the wastewater treatment process can remove nutrients efficiently. The removal rate of TOC, T-N, and T-P were 72%, 62%, 72% respectively. In case of heavy metal, the removal rate of heavy metals was between 62-87%. This means that it can reduce human health risks from heavy metals in treated water. Heavy metals content in sewage sludge can be ranked according to mean concentrations in the following order: Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > As > Mo > Se > Hg > Cd. Cu, Zn and Cr were the top three highest heavy metals that caused non-carcinogen health risks for both children and adults. Heavy metals in dry-based sewage sludge would be toxic for children’s health (non-carcinogen health risks) but not for adults. The carcinogenic risks from sludge utilization were under the safe limit for both children and adults.
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