Potential of Vegetable Oils for Producing Green Diesel Via Hydrocracking Process

Main Article Content

Wiphada Attaphaiboon
Arthit Neramittagapong
Sutasinee Neramittagapong
Somnuk Theerakulpisut


The effects of fatty acid components on the yield of alternative diesel produced by hydrocracking of vegetable oils and its properties were studied in this work. Green diesel synthesis via hydrocracking reaction of 4 different raw materials including palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SFO), soybean oil (SO), and rice bran oil (RBO) was investigated.  Green diesel production was carried out at a constant pressure of 5 MPa and a constant temperature of 450oC in a continuous high-pressure reactor supplied with hydrogen. Feedstocks of vegetable oils were fed to the reactor with a liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 1 h-1 over Pd/TiO2-Al2O3 catalyst. The results revealed that RBO gave the highest liquid product yield of 94%, while PO gave the highest diesel selectivity of 82% due to the high content of saturated (C16:0) and monounsaturated (C18:1) fatty acids. Moreover, the green diesel obtained from each feedstock was analyzed for its properties such as kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, and density. It was also found that the physical and thermal properties of the synthetic green diesel obtained from all the feedstocks were comparable with those of the standard diesel, except the net heat of combustion which was higher in the synthetic green diesel. Furthermore, the green diesel produced from this process was less contaminated by by-products as compared with the biodiesel obtained by transesterification reaction.

Article Details

Research Articles


Li, Y., Tang, W., Chen, Y., Liu, J. and Lee, C.F. 2019. Potential of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) as a Biofuel. Fuel. 242: 673-686.

Okumuş, Z.Ç., Doğan, T.H. and Temur, H. 2019. Removal of Water by Using Cationic Resin During Biodiesel Purification. Renewable Energy. 143: 47-51.

Berrios, M. and Skelton, R.L. 2008. Comparison of Purification Methods for Biodiesel. Chemical Engineering Journal. 144: 459-465.

Hayyan, M., Mjalli, F.S., Hashim, M.A. and AlNashef, I.M. 2010. A Novel Technique for Separating Glycerine from Palm Oil-Based Biodiesel Using Ionic Liquids. Fuel Processing Technology. 91: 116-120.

Atadashi, I.M. 2015. Purification of Crude Biodiesel Using Dry Washing and Membrane Technologies. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 54: 1265-1272.

Veljković, V.B., Stamenković, O.S. and Tasić, M.B. 2014. The Wastewater Treatment in the Biodiesel Production with Alkali-Catalyzed Transesterification. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 32: 40-60.

Robinson, P.R. and Dolbear, G.E. 2006. Chapter 7 Hydroteating and Hydrocracking: Fundamentals: Hydroprocessing Units : Similarities and Differences. Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing. New York: Springer. 177-218.

Knothe, G. 2010. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel: A Comparison. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 36: 364-373.

Sonthalia, A. and Kumar, N. 2017. Hydroprocessed Vegetable Oil as a Fuel for Transportation Sector: A Review. Journal of the Energy Institute. 1-17.

Chowdhury, K., Banu, L., Khan, S. and Latif, A. 1970. Studies on the Fatty Acid Composition of Edible Oil. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 42: 311-316.

Oluremi, O.I., Solomon, A.O. and Saheed, A.A. 2013. Fatty Acids, Metal Composition and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Igbemo Ekiti Rice Bran Oil. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 5: 39-46.

Meiorin, C., Aranguren, M.I. and Mosiewicki, M.A. 2015. Polymeric Networks Based on Tung Oil: Reaction and Modification with Green Oil Monomers. European Polymer Journal. 67: 551-560.

Verma, D., Rana, B.S., Kumar, R., Sibi, M.G. and Sinha, A.K. 2015. Diesel and Aviation Kerosene with Desired Aromatics from Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil over Hydrogenation Catalysts Supported on Hierarchical Mesoporous SAPO-11. Applied Catalysis A: General. 490: 108-116.

Kiatkittipong, W., Phimsen, S., Kiatkittipong, K., Wongsakulphasatch, S., Laosiripojana, N. and Assabumrungrat, S. 2013. Diesel-Like Hydrocarbon Production from Hydroprocessing of Relevant Refining Palm Oil. Fuel Processing Technology. 116: 16-26.

Sankaranarayanan, T.M., Banu, M., Pandurangan, A. and Sivasanker, S. 2011. Hydroprocessing of Sunflower Oil-Gas Oil Blends over Sulfided Ni-Mo-Al-Zeolite Beta Composites. Bioresource Technology. 102: 10717-10723.

Dujjanutat, P., Neramittagapong, A. and Kaewkannetra, P. 2015. H2-Assisted Chemical Reaction for Green-Kerosene Production. Defect and Diffusion Forum. 364: 104-111.

Groen, J.C., Peffer, L.A.A. and Pérez-Ramírez, J. 2003. Pore Size Determination in Modified Micro- and Mesoporous Materials: Pitfalls and Limitations in Gas Adsorption Data Analysis. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 60: 1-17.

Dicks, A.L., Ensell, R.L., Phillips, T.R., Szczepura, A.K., Thorley, M., Williams, A. and Wragg, R.D. 1981. A Study of Relationships Between Pore Size Distribution, Hydrogen Chemisorption, and Activity of Hydrodesulphurisation Catalysts. Journal of Catalysis. 72: 266-273.

Tiwari, R., Rana, B.S., Kumar, R., Verma, D., Kumar, R., Joshi, R.K., Garg, M.O. and Sinha, A.K. 2011. Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking Catalysts for Processing of Waste Soya-Oil and Refinery-Oil Mixtures. Catalysis Communications. 12: 559-562.

Looi, P.Y., Mohamed, A.R. and Tye, C.T. 2012. Hydrocracking of Residual Oil Using Molybdenum Supported over Mesoporous Alumina as a Catalyst. Chemical Engineering Journal. 181-182: 717-724.

Azizi, N., Ali, S.A., Alhooshani, K., Kim, T., Lee, Y., Park, J.Il., Miyawaki, J., Yoon, S.H. and Mochida, I. 2013. Hydrotreating of Light Cycle Oil over NiMo and CoMo Catalysts with Different Supports. Fuel Processing Technology. 109: 172-178.

Song, H., Dai, M., Guo, Y.T. and Zhang, Y.J. 2012. Preparation of Composite TiO2-Al2O3 Supported Nickel Phosphide Hydrotreating Catalysts and Catalytic Activity for Hydrodesulfurization of Dibenzothiophene. Fuel Processing Technology. 96: 228-236.

Vozka, P., Orazgaliyeva, D., Šimáček, P., Blažek, J. and Kilaz, G. 2017. Activity Comparison of Ni-Mo/Al2O3 and Ni-Mo/TiO2 Catalysts in Hydroprocessing of Middle Petroleum Distillates and Their Blend with Rapeseed Oil. Fuel Processing Technology. 167: 684-694.

Ferris, A.M. and Rothamer, D.A. 2016. Methodology for the Experimental Measurement of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Distillation Curves Using a Modified ASTM D86 Setup. Fuel. 182: 467-479.

Anand, K., Ranjan, A. and Mehta, P.S. 2010. Estimating the Viscosity of Vegetable Oil and Biodiesel Fuels. Energy and Fuels. 24: 664-672.