Enemy of Our Making? Navigating the Iran-US-EU Relationships from 1953 until 2023

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Fabio Calzolari


The Islamic Republic of Iran is a country where a Shiite theocracy, a ruling body made by Shia Muslims ministers, has controlled the population since 1979. For the US, the state is a menace to the global order. Commentaries focus on the link between nuclear power and nuclear weapons. The EU has a more nuanced view of Iran, and its relationship has continuously evolved. Though the block prefers avoiding turning an entire state into a caricature of villainy, it has been critical of its human rights record and has called for improvements in this area. The paper analyses the history of modern Iran and whether and how US and EU’s foreign policies impacted it. The author applied Neo-institutionalism, which underlines the role of national and international, formal and informal institutions, and their interplay, in shaping a nation’s future. Results suggest that Washington has often been biased in its approach to Tehran, focusing on its geopolitical goals rather than seeking to comprehend the competitor’s perspectives and needs. The Anglo-American coup in 1953 against the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and the instalment of an autocracy left a deep mistrust of the West. For many people, the events set the stage for the civil war in 1979. Outcomes imply that the Islamic Republic has squandered its citizens’ resources and contributed to the region's destabilisation. Finally, findings show that the EU has eschewed military options and sought a strategic compromise between the parties to keep the Middle East into the diplomatic fold.

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Calzolari, F. (2023). Enemy of Our Making? Navigating the Iran-US-EU Relationships from 1953 until 2023. Political Science and Public Administration Journal, 14(2), 223–242. Retrieved from https://so05.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/polscicmujournal/article/view/263039
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