Design Considerations for Outdoor Environment of Kindergartens for Promoting Young Children’s Development

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Ansaya Pornpattharanun
Chamawong Suriyachan
Sasilak Khayankij


The outdoor environment of kindergartens plays a crucial role in fostering holistic child development. This research explores the design considerations essential for creating effective outdoor spaces in kindergartens , to promote young children’s development. The research encompasses a series of case studies involving 3 kindergarten facilities located in Bangkok Metropolition Region. Data acquisition involved a quantative approach, comprising observational techniques, structured surveys, and in-depth interviews conducted with pertinent stakeholders. Educational concerns encompass a spectrum of factors  safety, accessibility, and the provision of appropriate play equipment, the physical environment, the incorporation of sensory stimulation elements plays a pivotal role in fostering holistic child development. The research findings revealed that in the context of kindergarten environments, two key observations emerged;  1)  the facilitators of outdoor engagement during young children encompass a range of critical factors including safety considerations, delineation of optimal utility zoning and  planning to enhance flexibility across various activity areas,  2) The selection of elements such as grassy lawns and sandpits in the outdoor kindergarten environment has  been  contribute to  children's development of  across various domains. The research proposes design guidelines. The findings underscore the importance of a well-designed outdoor environment in promoting children's physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development. The insights from this research provide valuable guidance for architects, educators, and policymakers seeking to enhance the quality of kindergartens' outdoor spaces.

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