Main Article Content
Heat strain is a serious health issue in many manufacturing industries, including steel plants, foundries, and automobile industries. This research attempts to control the high temperatures in a heat treatment plant of automobile industry whose existing ventilation methods were insufficient to address the heat-related problems. Preliminary studies were carried out to determine the existing temperatures and air velocities, the effectiveness of the ventilation measures and the problems associated with the heat processes. The obtained data were fed into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model with initial and boundary conditions, used to predict the temperature and airflow inside the building. Five additional building models were created, each adding different thermal control and ventilation measures to the initial configuration. Based on the simulations from CFD, a model with windows, ventilators, enclosures, and jet fans was selected as the best case. This ventilation system was then physically installed in the building. The performance of the real system was measured and compared to the predicted values. A good correlation was found between the numerical simulation and the experimental results; the temperature differences between the values at 1.5 m, 3 m and 4.5 m above the ground were 1.8%, 2.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The final ventilation solution was able to decrease the average temperature by 5.3°C and increase the average air velocity by 1.5 m/s. This study demonstrates how numerical modeling and building ventilation solutions can be effectively used to solve the problem of high temperatures in an indoor industrial environment.
Wiriyasart, S. and Naphon, P. 2019. Numerical study on air ventilation in the workshop room with multiple heat sources. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. 13, 100405: 1-11.
Akhtar, M., Qamar, S.Z., Muhammad, M. and Nadeem, A. 2018. Optimum heat treatment of aluminum alloy used in manufacturing of automotive piston components. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 33(16): 1874-1880.
Edenhofer, B., Lankes, H.P., Burgmaier, H. and Kurz, A. 2013. The flexible heat treatment of automotive components in a novel type of pusher furnace. La Metallurgia Italiana. 98(2): 39-45.
Qu, S. and Gong, Y. 2021. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of 316L stainless steel parts fabricated by hybrid additive and subtractive process. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 117(11): 3465-3475.
Gladshtein, V.I. and Lyubimov, A.A. 2021. Selection Criteria for Heat Treatment in Order to Optimize Reconstructed Heat Supply Turbine Body Metal Component Properties. Power Technology and Engineering. 54(6): 896-903.
Kong, D., Ni, X., Dong, C., Zhang, L., Man, C., Yao., J., Xiao, K. and Li, X. 2018. Heat treatment effect on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrochimica Acta. 276: 293-303.
Ciuha, U., Pogacar, T., Bogataj, L.K., Gliha, M., Nybo, L., Flouris, A.D. and Mekjavic, I.B. 2019. Interaction between Indoor Occupational Heat Stress and Environmental Temperature Elevations during Heat Waves. Weather, Climate, and Society. 11: 755-762.
Chowdhury, S., Hamada, Y. and Ahmed, S. 2017. Indoor heat stress and cooling energy comparison between green roof (GR) and non-green roof (n-GR) by simulations for labor intensive factories in the tropics. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment. 6(2): 449-462.
Pogačar, T., Casanueva, A., Kozjek, K., Ciuha, U., Mekjavić, I.B., Bogataj, L.K. and Črepinšek, Z. 2018. The effect of hot days on occupational heat stress in the manufacturing industry: implications for workers’ well-being and productivity. International Journal of Biometeorology. 62(7): 1251-1264.
Nerbass, F.B., Pecoits-Filho, R., Clark, W.F., Sontrop, J.M., McIntyre, C.W. and Moist, L. 2017. Occupational Heat Stress and Kidney Health: From Farms to Factories. Kidney International Reports. 2(6): 998-1008.
OSHA Technical Manual. 2015. Section III: Chapter 4.
Morrissey, M.C., et al. 2021. Heat Safety in the Workplace: Modified Delphi Consensus to Establish Strategies and Resources to Protect the US Workers. GeoHealth. 5(8): 1-32.
Yin, M., Hu, H., We, K., Wei, Y., Zhang, X., Zhu, K. and Yan, X. 2021. Computational study on effects of jet fans to traffic force in highway tunnel. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 118, 104155: 1-14.
Nazari, A., Jafari, M., Rezaei, N., Taghizadeh-Hesary, F. and Taghizadeh-Hesary, F. 2021. Jet fans in the underground car parking areas and virus transmission. Physics of fluids. 33(1), 013603: 1-12.
Senveli, A., Dizman,T., Celen, A., Bilge, D., Dalkılıç, AS. and Wongwises, S. 2015. CFD Analysis of Smoke and Temperature Control System of an Indoor Parking Lot with Jet Fans. Journal of Thermal Engineering. 1(2): 116-130.
Weisenpacher, P. and Valasek, L., Computer simulation of airflows generated by jet fans in real road tunnel by parallel version of FDS 6. 2021. International Journal of Ventilation. 20(1): 20-33.
Weng, M., Obadi, I., Wang, F., Liu, F. and Liao, C. 2020. Optimal distance between jet fans used to extinguish metropolitan tunnel fires: A case study using fire dynamic simulator modeling. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 95, 103116: 1-12.
Çakir, M.T. and Ün, Ç., CFD Analysis of Smoke and Temperature Control System of Car Park Area with Jet Fans. 2020. Journal of Engineering Research and Reports. 13(3): 27-40.
Sultansu, S. and Onat, A. 2020. The CFD Analysis of Ventilation and Smoke Control System with Jet Fan in a Parking Garage. International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Pure Sciences. 32(1): 89-95.
Sverdlov, A.V., Volkov, A.P., Volkov, M.A. Rykov, S.V. and Guliyants, M.M. 2020. Increasing energy efficiency and resource saving thanks to the design solution on the use of reversible jet ventilation system for four-storied underground garage in national cultural center of Kazan. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1565, 012085: 1-6.
Nielsen, P.V. 2004. Computational fluid dynamics and room air movement. Indoor Air. 14(s7): 134-143.
Cao, S.J. 2019. Challenges of using CFD simulation for the design and online control of ventilation systems. Indoor and Built Environment. 28(1): 3-6.
Shen, P. and Wang, Z. 2020. How neighborhood form influences building energy use in winter design condition: Case study of Chicago using CFD coupled simulation. Journal of Cleaner Production. 261, 121094: 1-19.
Zhang, X., Weerasuriya, A.U. and Tse, K.T. 2020. CFD simulation of natural ventilation of a generic building in various incident wind directions: Comparison of turbulence modelling, evaluation methods, and ventilation mechanisms. Energy and Buildings. 229, 110516: 1-19.
Prakash, D. 2015. Transient analysis and improvement of indoor thermal comfort for an air-conditioned room with thermal insulations. Ain Shams Engineering Journal. 6(3): 947-956.
Alwetaishi, M. and Gadi, M. 2021. New and innovative wind catcher designs to improve indoor air quality in buildings. Energy and Built Environment. 2(4): 337-344.
Gilani, S., Montazeri, H. and Blocken, B. 2016. CFD simulation of stratified indoor environment in displacement ventilation: Validation and sensitivity analysis. Building and Environment. 95: 299-313.
Heidarinejad, G., Fathollahzadeh, M.H. and Pasdarshahri, H. 2015. Effects of return air vent height on energy consumption, thermal comfort conditions and indoor air quality in an under floor air distribution system. Energy and Buildings. 97: 155-161.
Chen, Z., Xin, J. and Liu, P. 2020. Air quality and thermal comfort analysis of kitchen environment with CFD simulation and experimental calibration. Building and Environment. 172, 106691: 1-11.
Woodson, R.D. 2012. Chapter 8 - OSHA Regulations, in Construction Hazardous Materials Compliance Guide, Woodson, R.D. Editor. Butterworth-Heinemann: Boston. 115-143.
Bembenek, M. and Uhrynski, A. 2021. Analysis of the Temperature Distribution on the Surface of Saddle-Shaped Briquettes Consolidated in the Roller Press. Materials. 14(7), 1770: 1-16.
Usamentiaga, R., Venegas, P., Guerediaga, J., Vega, L., Molleda, J. and Bulnes, F.G. 2014. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing. Sensors. 14(7): 12305-12348.
Thollander, P., Karlsson, M., Rohdin, P., Wollin, J. and Rosenqvist, J. 2020. Introduction to Industrial Energy Efficiency. Cambridge, UK: Academic Press.
Hoult, R.E. and Kovtun, P. 2020. Stable and causal relativistic Navier-Stokes equations. Journal of High Energy Physics. 67: 1-14.
Tao, T. 2019. Searching for singularities in the Navier–Stokes equations. Nature Reviews Physics. 1(7): 418-419.
Joshi, J.B., et al. 2019 Computational fluid dynamics, in Advances of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Nuclear Reactor Design and Safety Assessment, Joshi J.B. and Nayak A.K. Editors., Woodhead Publishing. 21-238.
Mularski, J., Arora, A., Saeed, M.A., Niedzwiecki, L. and Saeidi, S. 2020. Impact of Turbulence Models on the Air Flow in a Confined Rectangular Space. Engineering Science & Technology. 2(1): 46-53.
Gunadi, G.G., Siswantara, A.I., Budiarso, B., Daryus, A. and Pujowidodoet, H. 2016. Turbulence Model and Validation of Air Flow in Wind Tunnel. International Journal of Technology. 8: 1362-1372.
Baukal Jr., C.E., 2013. The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook: Three-Volume Set. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Fatima, S.F. and Chaudhry, H.N. 2017. Steady-state CFD modelling and experimental analysis of the local microclimate in Dubai (UAE). Sustainable Building. 2(5): 1-12.
Fluent Inc. 2007. AIRPAK 3.0 user's guide. Centerra Resource Park, Lebanon.
Tu, J., Inthavong, K. and Ahmadi, G. 2012. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics (CFPD): An Introduction. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System, Springer, Dordrecht: 1-18.
Yang, X., An, W., Li, W. and Zhang, S. 2020. Implementation of a Local Time Stepping Algorithm and Its Acceleration Effect on Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Models. Water. 12(4), 1148: 1-24.
Thomas, J.L., Diskin, B. and Rumsey, C.L. 2008. Towards Verification of Unstructured-Grid Solvers. AIAA Journal. 46(12): 3070-3079.
Zyczynska, A. 2014. The heat consumption and heating costs after the insulation of building partitions of building complex supplied by the local oil boiler room. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność. 16(2): 313-318.
Ye, W., Zhang, X., Gao, J., Gao, G. Zhou, X. and Su, X. 2017. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review. Science of The Total Environment. 586: 696-729.
Giesen, B.J.M.v.d., Penders, S.H.A., Loomans, M.G.L.C., Rutten, P.G.S. and Hensen, J.L.M. 2011. Modelling and simulation of a jet fan for controlled air flow in large enclosures. Environmental Modelling & Software. 26(2): 191-200.
Chen, C., Lai, D. and Chen, Q. 2020. Energy analysis of three ventilation systems for a large machining plant. Energy and Buildings. 224, 110272: 1-11.
Kumar, S., Mathur, J., Mathur, S., Singh M.K. and Loftness, V. 2016. An adaptive approach to define thermal comfort zones on psychrometric chart for naturally ventilated buildings in composite climate of India. Building and Environment. 109: 135-153.
Pereira P.F.C.P. and Broday E.E. 2021. Determinaiton of thermal comfort zones through comparative analysis between different characterization methods of thermally dissatisfied people. Buildings. 11(320): 1-26.
Srisuwan P. and Shoichi K. 2017. Field investigation on indoor thermal environment of a high-rise condominium in hot-humid climate of Bangkok, Thailand. Procedia Engineering. 180: 1754-1762.
Esfahankalateh A.T., Farrokhzad M., Saberi O. and Ghaffarianhoseini A. 2021. Achieving wind comfort through window design in residential buidlings in cold climates, a case study in Tabirz city. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. 16: 502-517.
Givoni B. 1992. Comfort, climate analysis and buidling design guidelines. Energy and Buildings. 18: 11-23.
Scibor M., Bokwa A. and Balcerzak B. 2020. Impact of wind speed and apartment ventilation on indoor concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Krakow, Poland. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 13: 553-562.
King E., Mahon J. and Pilla F. 2009. Measuring noise in high wind speeds: evaluating the performance of wind shields. Inter-Noise, 23-26 August 2009, Ottawa, Canada.
Davis J.A., Ousler G.W., Langelier N.A., Schindelar M.R., Abelson R. and Abelson M.B. 2006. Seasonal changes in dry eye symptomatology. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 47, 280: 1.
Zhou, B., Yang, B., Wu, M., Guo, Y., Wang, F. and Li, A. 2022. Draught sensation assessment in an occupied space heated by stratified ventilation system: Attachment ventilation with relayed fans. Building and Environment, 207, 108500: 1-12.
Zhang, Y., Kacira, M. and An, L. 2016. A CFD study on improving air flow uniformity in indoor plant factory system. Biosystems Engineering. 147: 193-205.