Legal Measures to Resolve the Loan Shark Problems: A Comparative Study between Thailand, Republic of the Union of Myanmar and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (in Thai)

Main Article Content

Krisda Eiamlamai


Thai governments have tried for over a decade to resolve informal debt by measures such as the registered informal debt, Pico finance credit Program, and so on, but still cannot eliminate the loan sharks issued or debt reduction from the Society of Thailand. Because the informal debt was evolution itself or changed in complex formats such as the pawn car registration business, time sharing. According to a study by documentary research and comparative legal research methodology. It found that informal debt issues of Republic of the Union of Myanmar and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic have caused format of contract debts would also often be associated or correlated with the illegal business such as gambling, illegal immigration. The debt problem has not developed or sophisticated as in Thailand. Besides, civil law still does not have the interest rates provisions of the Redeemer in the consignment contract. From a solution system in the country in debt that Thailand has continuously. It found that revised Civil Law and enforcement very seriously, including the economic control measures, the result possibly reduced unconventional debt. If the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic has a problem with informal debt in the future may take measures to resolve the external debt of the country, there are ways to include amending the Civil and Commercial concerning contracts. Enact legislation of usury law to ban excessive interest rates, establish the specialized agencies carried out by official to conquering loan sharks seriously for the regulated business operations, covert or hidden exploits the debtor unduly.

Article Details

How to Cite
Eiamlamai, K. . (2019). Legal Measures to Resolve the Loan Shark Problems: A Comparative Study between Thailand, Republic of the Union of Myanmar and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (in Thai). Connexion: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(1), 185–228. Retrieved from
Research article


Academic Bureau. (2015) Informal debt: Nano finance (หนี้นอกระบบ: นาโนไฟแนนซ์), Academic Focus, The Secretariat of the House of Representatives, vol. 3, p. 17. (in Thai)

AECplus. (2000) Introduction to the AEC. Episode 3: Myanmar (รู้จักกับประชาคมเศรษฐกิจอาเซียน ตอนที่ 3: ประเทศพม่า), Available: [28 November 2018] (in Thai)

Amorrachayawichan, U. (2017) Factors that influence debt outside the public system in Municipal Chumphon (ปัจจัยที่มีผลต่อการเกิดหนี้นอกระบบของประชาชนในอำเภอเมืองชุมพร จังหวัดชุมพร), Research and Development Journal, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 62-73. (in Thai)

Artingstoll, C. (2017) Microfinance and the ultra-poor in Myanmar, Available: [28 November 2018]

Aung, W. S. (2011) Informal trade and underground economy in Myanmar: Costs and benefits, Bangkok: Research Institute on contemporary Southeast Asia (IRASEC).

Australian Financial Security Authority (A.F.S.A.). (2017) What is a debt agreement?, Canberra: Austraian Financial Security Authority Home Page, Available: [7 March 2018]

Bank of the Lao P.D.R. (2016) Quarterly report Q4/2016, p.4, Available: [1 September 2018]

Brenden, M. (1999) “Payday Lenders” face regulation, Atlanta Business Chronicle, vol. 34, no. 20, p. 328.

Briggs, A., & Burrows, A. (2017) The law of contract in Myanmar, Hampshire: Ashford Colour Press.

Buddhawongsa, P., et al. (2016) Informal debt: Problems and policy implication under sufficiency economy (หนี้นอกระบบ: ปัญหาและแนวทางแก้ไขภายใต้แนวทางปรัชญาเศรษฐกิจพอเพียง), Journal of Economics Chiang Mai University, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-22. (in Thai)

Center for Economic Business and Grassroots Economy Research. (2015) The debt situation of low-income households of Thailand Report Study (รายงานผลการศึกษาภาวะหนี้สินของครัวเรือนผู้มีรายได้น้อยของประเทศไทย), Available: [20 May 2018] (in Thai)

Chanthavong, P. (2009) The Lao PDR. law of contract in comparison with Thai laws of juristic act and contract (กฎหมายว่าด้วยข้อผูกพันในสัญญาของสาธารณรัฐประชาธิปไตยประชาชนลาวศึกษาเปรียบเทียบกับหลักกฎหมายลักษณะนิติกรรมสัญญาของไทย), Master’s thesis, Thammasat University. (in Thai)

Dalberg Global Development Advisors. (2017) Power women and girls financial inclusion country assessment: Myanmar, New York: Dalberg Global Development Advisors.

Duflos, E., et al. (2013) Microfinance in Myanmar sector assessment, Washington, DC: IFC Advisory Services in East Asia and the Pacific.

Exposes scam businesses on car licenses pledging. (2017) Bangkokbiznews, Available: [12 March 2018]

Fernández, M. (2014) Capacity-building for rule of law promotion in Myanmar, Available: [10 November 2018]

Friis, C. (2015) Small-scale land acquisitions, large-scale implications: The case of Chinese banana investments in Northern Laos, Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai University.

Galucci, M., & Scanlon, J. (2014) Afford two, eat one: Financial inclusion in rural Myanmar, Myanmar: Proximity Designs.

Gonzales, I. (2017) Informal lenders seek SEC licenses, Available: [10 May 2018]

Gutteridge, H. C. (1949) Comparative law: An introduction to the comparative method of legal study & research, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hogenhout, T. H. (2011) The rural and microfinance sector of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Manila: Asian Development Bank, Southeast Asia Department.

Hoyes, D. (2015) Take a buyer beware approach to ontario’s new debt settlement laws, Available: [10 May 2018]

International Labour Organization. (2007) Meeting the challenge proven practices for human trafficking prevention in the Greater Mekong Subregion LAO PDR, International Labour Organization Sub-region, Lao PDR: International Labour Organization.

International Monetary Fund. (2008) Lao PDR: Second poverty reduction strategy paper, Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Jamneanphol, S. (2014) Informal debt and social justice (หนี้นอกระบบกับความเป็นธรรมทางสังคม), Bangkok: Office of The Permanent Secretary of Justice. (in Thai)

Jaiwat, W. (2018) Laos experiencing debt to GDP was higher than expected, while the GDP in the country grew (ลาวประสบปัญหาหนี้ต่อ GDP สูงกว่าคาดขณะที่ GDP ในประเทศโตต่อเนื่อง), Bangkok: Brand Inside. (in Thai)

Jindawat, K. (2015) The informal debt problems and solutions by the Government (ปัญหาหนี้นอกระบบและแนวทางการแก้ไขโดยภาครัฐ), Bangkok: Thailand Parliament. (in Thai)

Kaino, T. (2005) Rural credit markets in Myanmar: A study of formal and non-formal lenders, Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, vol. 3, no. 1 & 2, pp. 1-15.

Katanyatanont, T., et al. (2011) Guidelines for using legal measures to supervise and resolve informal debt (แนวทางการใช้มาตรการทางกฎหมายในการกำกับดูแลและแก้ไขปัญหาเจ้าหนี้นอกระบบ), Bangkok: Fiscal Policy Office, Available: [5 June 2018] (in Thai)

Kyophilavong, P., et al. (2013) Resource booms, growth and poverty in Laos: What can we learn from other countries and policy simulations?, Laos: Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP), Faculty of Economics and Business Management, National University of Laos.

Lacko, J. M., et al. (2011) Survey of rent-to-own customers, Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission.

Lynn, K. Y. (2018) Unwieldly loan limit causing complications for nation’s farmers, Available: [28 November 2018]

Macintyre, J. (2016) Hatching hope: Ducks and microfinance in Myanmar, Available: [20 March 2018]

Meechart, V., et al. (2013) The project studies the development of judicial administration policy in order to solve the problem of informal debt (โครงการศึกษาพัฒนานโยบายการยุติธรรมเพื่อแก้ปัญหาหนี้นอกระบบ), Bangkok: Ministry of Justice. (in Thai)

Mekong Institute. (2017) Focus group discussion on financial role for sustainable development in ASEAN, Available: [20 March 2018]

Mukherjee, G. (2013) Lao PDR, business and human rights in ASEAN: A baseline study, Available: Rights_in_ASEAN_ Baseline_Study_ebook.pdf [25 November 2018]

O'Donnell, J., & Walbaum, M. (2009) Consumers turn to rent-to-own stores in rickety economy, Available: [23 May 2018]

Olechnowicz, C. A. (2011) History of usury: The transition of usury through ancient greece, the rise of christianity and islam, and the expansion of long-distance trade and capitalism, Gettysburg Economic Review, vol. 5, Article 7.

Paijitrochana, P. ( 2017) Laos finance crisis (วิกฤตการเงินลาว), Available: [14 January 2018] (in Thai)

Phongpirodom, P., & Chonlavorn, P. (2015) Nano finances, solution of informal debt? (นาโนไฟแนนซ์ทางออกของหนี้นอกระบบ?), Bangkok: SCB Economic Intelligence Center. (in Thai)

Phouxay, K., et al. (2008) A study of formal and informal recruitment practices of Lao workers migrating to Thailand, Bangkok: ILO Project, Migrant Recruitment from the Lao PDR to Thailand.

Pohsri, S., et al. (2016) Attitudes toward informal debt in term of personal loans of residents in Hat Yai, Songkhla province (ทัศนคติที่มีต่อหนี้นอกระบบในรูปสินเชื่อส่วนบุคคลของประชาชนอำเภอหาดใหญ่ จังหวัดสงขลา), Journal of Management Sciences, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 159-185. (in Thai)

Pommach, V., & Wongwattanapikul, C. (2016) The fundamental of legal issues concerning sale with of redemption: A comparative study of the kingdom of Thailand and Lao People’s Democratic Republic (ปัญหาพื้นฐานของกฎหมายเกี่ยวกับการขายฝาก: ศึกษาเปรียบเทียบราชอาณาจักรไทยและสาธารณรัฐประชาธิปไตยประชาชนลาว), MFU Connexion: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 111-135. (in Thai)

Porpol, Y. (2015) Legal measures for consumer protection: A case study of customers of loan sharks (มาตรการทางกฎหมายในการคุ้มครองผู้บริโภค: ศึกษาเฉพาะกรณีผู้ใช้บริการเงินกู้นอกระบบ), Master’s thesis, Bangkok: Pridi Banomyong Faculty of Laws, Dhurakij Pundit University. (in Thai)

Proximity Designs. (2014) In the incubator: A new financial inclusion product, Available: [20 March 2018]

Robinson, S. M. (2001) The microfinance revolution: Sustainable finance for the poor, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Saleilles, R. (1900) Congrès international de droit comparée, Rapport préliminaire présenté à la commission d’organisation sur l’utilité, le but et le programme du Congrès”, Bulletin de la Société de Législation comparée, p. 29.

Sava, G. (2012) The ethics of usury and its impact on the modern banking system, Available: [26 May 2018]

Siripraiwan, P. (2017) Solving the informal debt … tough job for Thai government (แก้หนี้นอกระบบ . . . งานช้างรัฐบาลลุงตู่), Bangkok: Efinancethai, Available: [13 November 2018]

Soe, H. K. (2016) Fast cash for the poor, Available: [23 April 2018]

Sutaporn, P. (2013) Bhuddism application for problem solving on illegal debt: In case study of Dankwien pottery traders Chok Chai district Nakorn Ratchasima (การใช้หลักธรรมทางพระพุทธศาสนาแก้ไขปัญหาหนี้นอกระบบ: กรณีศึกษาผู้ประกอบการเครื่องปั้นดินเผาด่านเกวียน อำเภอโชคชัย จังหวัดนครราชสีมา), Bangkok: National Research Committee Office. (in Thai)

Thai Business Information Center in LAO. (2017) Reserved business for the Lao citizens (ธุรกิจสงวนสำหรับพลเมืองลาว), Available: [23 May 2018] ( in Thai)

Thanyapoj, T. (2011) Informal debt management: Chai Nat case (การแก้ไขปัญหาหนี้นอกระบบ กรณีศึกษาจังหวัดชัยนาท), Bangkok, Thailand National Defense Insitute. (in Thai)

The Land Information Working Group (LIWG). (2011) JVC helps farmers in Laos raise rice yields, Available: [20 July 2017]

The Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund (LIFT). (2012) LIFT baseline survey report 2012, Yangon: LIFT.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Myanmar. (2001) The Myanmar Agricultural Development Bank, Available: [28 November 2018]

Thu, K. K. S. (2015) Myth and reality in irregular migration from Myanmar, Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington.

Tong, P. S. (2009) Lao People’s Democratic Republic forestry outlook study, Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Upunno, U. (2007) An analysis of the success in solving people’s none institute loan according to the poverty elimination policy in Baan Ti District, Lamphun Province (การวิเคราะห์ความสําเร็จของการแก้ไขปัญหาหนี้นอกระบบของประชาชนตามนโยบายขจัดความยากจนในพื้นที่อําเภอบ้านธิ จังหวัดลําพูน), Master’s thesis, Chiang Mai University. (in Thai)

Varese, F. (2011) Mafias on the move: How organized crime conquers new territories, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Vincent, J. (2014) Historical, religious and scholastic prohibition of usury: The common origins of western and islamic financial practices, New Jersey: Seton Hall University.

World Bank. (2014) Myanmar ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a time of transition: A systematic country diagnostic, Washington, DC: World Bank.

Zweigert, K., & Kötz, H. (1998) Introduction to comparative Law, 3rd edition, Oxford: Clarendon Press.