THE INFLUENCES OF GENDER ROLE ON CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL MANAGERS

Authors

  • p. Oanh Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand

Keywords:

Managerial position, Successful manager, Gender stereotype, Characteristics, Schein Descriptive Index

Abstract

The perceptions of successful managers as masculine people have been mentioned in previous studies that have created barriers for women on the path to conquer managerial positions. This study was to examine the relationships between gender stereotypes and the characteristics of the successful managers that were perceived by both gender students in the diversified cultural context of Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). The participants included 240 students from 20 countries studying in three main departments in AIT. The original Schein Descriptive Index with 92 items was used in this study with three different categories namely
successful managers, men and women along with the calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) was used to determine the degree of resemblance of successful managersmen, successful managers-women. The findings firstly indicated that “Think manager, think male” still existed at AIT, and further revealed that female participants viewed both women and men were quite similar to successful managers while male participants perceived women were different from successful managers. From then, some further feasible suggestions were pointed to eliminate gender stereotype in management and create the environment where males and females have equal chances to reach managerial positions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abouchedid, K.E. (2007). Correlates of religious affiliation, religiosity and gender role attitudes among Lebanese Christian and Muslim college students. Equal Opportunities International, 26(3),193-208.
Berkery, E., Morley, M. & Tiernan, S. (2013). Beyond gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics:
from communal to androgynous, the changing views of women. Gender in Management: An International
Journal, 28(5), 278-298.
Bond, M.H. & Shiu, WYF. (1997). The relationship between a group’s personality resources and the two dimensions of its group process. Small Group Research, 28(2), 194-217.
Bono, J.E. & Judge, T.A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analysis. Journal
of applied psychology, 89(5), 901.
Carli, L.L & Eagly, A.H. (2016). Women face a labyrinth: an examination of metaphors for women leaders. Gender
in Management: An International Journal, 31(8), 527.
Ching, Y P. & Harris, B M. (2002). Gender stereotyping of managers and the self-concept of business students
across their undergraduate education. Women in Management Review, 17(8), 364-372.
Devine, P.G. & Elliot, A.J. (1995). Are racial stereotypes really fading? The Princeton trilogy revisited. Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(11), 1139-1150.
Duehr, E.E. & Bono, J.E. (2006). Men, women, and managers: are stereotypes finally changing?. Personnel Psychology,
59(4), 815-846.
Eagly, A.H. & Karau, S.J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological
Review, 109(3), 573.
Eagly, A.H. & Steffen, V.J. (1984).Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 735.
Fernandes, E. & Cabral-Cardoso, C. (2003). Gender asymmetries and the manager stereotype among management
students. Women in Management Review, 18(1/2), 77-87.
Fullagar, C.J., Sumer, H.C., Sverke, M. & Slick, R. (2003). Managerial sex-role stereotyping a cross cultural analysis.
International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(1), 3-107.
Hackman, M.Z., Hills, M.J., Furniss, A.H. & Paterson, T.J. (1992). Perceptions of gender-role characteristics and
transformational and transactional leadership behaviours. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75(1), 311-319.
Hall, R.J., Workman, J.W. & Marchioro, C.A.
(1998). Sex, task, and behavioral flexibility effects on leadership perceptions. Organizational Behavior
and Human Decision Processes, 74(1), 1-32.
Heilman, M.E. (2001). Description and prescription: how gender stereotypes prevent women’s ascent up the
organizational ladder. Journal of social issues, 57(4), 657-674.
Heilman, M.E., Block, C.J., Martell, R.F. & Simon, M.C. (1989). Has anything changed? Current characterizations
of men, women, and managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(6), 935.
Holton, V. & Dent, F.E. (2016). A better career environment for women: developing a blueprint for individuals
and organisations. Gender in Management: An International Journal. 31(8), 542-561.
Kiser, A.I. (2015). Workplace and leadership perceptions between men and women. Gender in Management: An
International Journal, 30(8), 598-612.
Koenig, A.M., Eagly, A.H., Mitchell, A.A. & Ristikari, T. (2011). Are leader stereotypes masculine? A metaanalysis
of three research paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4)
Lazzaretti, K., Kleinübing, Godoi, C., Parodi Oliveira Camilo, S. & Marcon, R. (2013). Gender diversity in the
boards of directors of Brazilian businesses. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 28(2), 94-
110.
Ling, S.C. & Mohd Nasurdin, A. (2016). Supervisor support and work engagement of hotel employees in
Malaysia: Is it different for men and women?. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 31(1), 2-18.
Lohr, S. (2009). Sampling: design and analysis. Nelson Education
Lyness, K.S. & Heilman, M.E. (2006). When fit is fundamental: performance evaluations and promotions of upperlevel
female and male managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 777.
Moneim Elsaid, A. & Elsaid, E. (2012). Sex stereotyping managerial positions: a cross-cultural comparison between
Egypt and the USA. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 27(2): 81-99
Orser, B. (1994). Sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics: an international
perspective. Women in Management Review, 9(4), 11-19.
Prime, J.L., Carter, N.M. & Welbourne, T.M. (2009). Women “take care,” men “take charge”: managers’ stereotypic
perceptions of women and men leaders. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 12(1), 25-49.
Rhee, K.S. & Sigler, T.H. (2015). Untangling relationship between gender and leadership. Gender in Management:
An International Journal, 30(2), 109-134.
Sauers, D.A., Kennedy, J.C. & O’Sullivan, D. (2002). Managerial sex role stereotyping: a New Zealand
perspective. Women in Management Review, 17(7), 342-347.
Schein, E.H. (2006). Organizational culture and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.
Schein, V.E. (1973). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite
management characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(2).
Schein, V.E. (1975). Relationships between sex role stereotypes and requisite
management characteristics among female managers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(3).
Schein, V.E. (2001). A global look at psychological barriers to women’s progress in management. Journal of
Social issues, 57(4), 675-688.
Schein, V.E. & Mueller, R. (1992). Sex role stereotyping and requisite management characteristics: a cross
cultural look. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 13(5), 439-447.
Schein, V.E., Mueller, R., Lituchy, T. & Liu, J. (1996). Think manager-think male: a global phenomenon?. Journal of
Organizational Behaviour, 17(1), 33-41.
Smith, P., Caputi, P. & Crittenden, N. (2012). A maze of metaphors around glass ceilings. Gender in Management: An
International Journal, 27(7), 436-448.
Vinnicombe, S. & Singh, V. (2002). Sex role stereotyping and requisites of successful top managers. Women
in Management Review, 17(3/4), 120-130.
Whitehead, A.L. (2012). Gender ideology and religion: does a masculine image of God matter?. Review of Religious
Research, 54(2), 139-156.
Yukongdi, V. & Benson, J. (2013). Women in Asian management. NY: Routledge.

Downloads

Published

2017-06-28

Issue

Section

บทความวิจัย (Research Article)