Development and Validation of the Sufficiency Living Wage Scale for Workers in Thailand

  • Dusadee Yoelao Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand
  • Piyada Sombatwattana Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand
  • Kanu Priya Mohan Behavioral Science Research Institute, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand
Keywords: Living Wage, Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, Thailand, scale development


This research presents a unique perspective about developing an instrument to measure the emerging concept of “Sufficiency Living Wage” (SLW), that was developed from the integration of “living wage” with the “Sufficiency Economy Philosophy” in Thailand, which has been the cornerstone of policies for sustainable development since 1997. The researchers formulated 2 research objectives, first to develop a scale to measure SLW, and second to examine the factor structure of this scale. A systematic scale development process entailed first a qualitative method to develop the concept of SLW, and later a quantitative development of the items of the SLW scale. The resulting SLW scale has 22-items, measured on a 5-point Likert scale. To test the psychometric properties of the SLW scale, data was collected from 428 workers in Thailand. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and the resultant three factors named as “perceived psychological utility”, “moderate consumption” and “living with self-immunity”. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the three factors was .88, .79, and .76, respectively. The emerging SLW scale has shown good psychometric properties; with an overall internal consistency of the measure (a = .89). Implications of the SLW scale are discussed for future research, and applications at workplace and policy levels.


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How to Cite
Yoelao, D., Sombatwattana, P., & Priya Mohan, K. (2021). Development and Validation of the Sufficiency Living Wage Scale for Workers in Thailand. Thailand and The World Economy, 39(1), 23-38. Retrieved from