Development and Validation of Positive Organizational Behaviour Scale: A Reflective Measurement Model


  • Puja Khatri University School of Management Studies, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, India
  • Sumedha Dutta Department of Business Administration, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies, India.


Positive Psychology, Positive Organizational Behaviour, Psychological Understanding, Positive Life Orientation


Positive Psychology (PP) recently made rapid strides with scholars exploring its implication in numerous areas. The theoretical framework of our research rests on the Positive Organizational Behaviour (POB) approach of PP. Significant attention is paid to identifying positive psychological capacities satisfying the inclusion norms of POB; yet, a robust instrument to quantify an individual’s POB is absent. This lacuna inspired many researchers to construct a scale for measuring the POB capacity of professionals working in the Indian Information Technology Enabled Services (ITeS) sector. Using a 2x2x2 factorial design structure and a purposive stratified proportionate sampling technique, we carried out analysis in two phases. Phase 1 (n1=201) extracted core POB capacities using principal component analysis (PCA). In Phase 2 (n2=574), confirmatory analysis using Smart PLS3 was conducted for scale validation. Two pertinent POB capacities ,Positive Life Orientation (PLO) and Psychological Understanding (PU), were recognized through PCA (50.912 collective explanation and 0.769 as the overall reliability of the scale). Our analysis established POB as a reflective–reflective second-order construct.


Download data is not yet available.


Arnau, R.C., Martinez, P., deGuzmán, I.N., Herth, K., & Konishi, C.Y. (2010). A Spanish-language version of the Herth Hope Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation in a Peruvian sample. Educational and Psychological Measurement,70(5), 808-824.

Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S. M. (2009). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 48(5), 677-693.

Ballout, H. (2009). Career commitment and career success: Moderating role of self–efficacy. Career Development International,14(7), 655 – 670.

Bandura, A, (1982). Self–efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 747–755.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura,A. (2000). Cultivate self-efficacy for personal and organizational effectiveness. In E. A. Locke (Ed.). The Blackwell handbook of principles of organizational behavior (pp.120–136). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Barrick, M.R., & Mount, M.K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology,44, 1–26.

Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York, NY: Harper and Row.

Bhalla, S., & Nauriyal, D. K. (2004). Emotional Intelligence: The emerging paradigm in personnel dynamics. Psychological Studies,49(2-3), 97-106.

Binder, M. (2014). Subjective well-being capabilities: Bridging the gap between the capability approach and subjective well-being research. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being, 15(5), 1197–1217.

Block, J.H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A. Collins (Ed.). Development of cognition, affect, and social relations: The Minnesota symposia on child psychology (pp.13). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Block, J. & Kreman, A.M. (1996). IQ and Ego – resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349 – 61.

Cameron, K.S., & Caza, A. (2004). Contributions to the discipline of positive organizational scholarship. American Behaviour Scientist,47, 731-739.

Cameron, K., Dutton, J., & Quinn, R. (2003). Positive organizational scholarship. San Francisco: Berrett – Koehler.

Caprara, G. V. (2010). Trait theory and social cognitive theory towards an integration, In S. Nowosad & B. Żurek (Eds.). Colors of science. Modern ICT technologies in disseminating scientific achievements. Lublin: Scientific Society of the Catholic University of Lublin.

Carver, C.S. (1998). Resilience and thriving: Models’ issues and linkages. Journal of Social Issues,54 (2), 245-266.

Cerff, K. & Winston, E. B. (2006). The inclusion of hope in the servant leadership model, Servant Leadership Research Roundtable, Regent University, Retrieved from

_leadership_roundtable/2006/pd f/cerff_winston.pdf.

Chen, Y.-S., Lien, C.-M., Lo, W.-Y., & Tsay, F.-S. (2021). Sustainability of positive psychological status in the workplace: The influence of organizational psychological ownership and psychological capital on police officers’ behavior. Sustainability, 13 (2689), 1-16.

Chen, Y.-S, Crant, M., Wang, N., Kou, Y., Qin, Y., Yu, J., & Sun, R. (2021). When there is a will there is a way: The role of proactive personality in combating COVID-19. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(2), 199 – 213.

Cherni, Z., & Gozen, A. (2021). The impact of positive psychological capital on organizational cynicism. International Journal of Commerce & Finance, 7(1), 181-190.

Chin, W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses, in Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods, and Application. Esposito Vinzi, V.; Chin, W.W.; Henseler, J.; Wang, H. (Eds.), 645-689. Springer: Germany.

Choubisa, R. (2009). POB: A comparative analysis of positive psychological capital amongst public and private sector employees. AIMA Journal of Management and Research,3(3/4),1-9.

Curry, L.A., & Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hope takes the field: Mind matters in athletic performances. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications (pp.243-259). San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press.

Danna, K., & Griffin, R. W. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Management,25(3), 357-384.

Diener, E., Oishi, S., &Lucas, R. E. (2002). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Ed.), Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Diener, Ed., Suh, M. E., Lucas, Richard, & Smith, H. (1999). Subjective well – being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin,125, 276 – 302.

Donaldson, I.S. & Ko, I. (2010). Positive organizational psychology, behaviour, and scholarship: A review of the existing literature and evidence base. The Journal of Positive Psychology,5(3), 177-191.

Efron, B. & Tibshirani, R.J. (1993). An introduction to the bootstrap. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Fineman, S. (2006). On being positive: Concerns and counterpoints. The Academy of Management Review, 31(2), 270-291.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1)-, 39-50.

Gable, S.L., & Haidt, J. (2005). What and why is positive psychology?. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 103-110.

Gefen, D., Straub, W.D. & Boudreau, MC.(2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of AIS,4(7), 1 - 78

Gilman, R., Dooley, J., & Florell, D. (2006). Relative levels of hope and their relationship with academic and psychological indicators among adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,25(2), 166 – 178.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.

Goleman, D. (1998). Emotional intelligence that leads to success. EI,2, 9-42.

Grant, A.M., & Campbell, E. M. (2007). Doing good, doing harm, being well and burning out: The interactions of perceived prosocial and antisocial impact in service work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,80, 665–691.

Hadi, S., Tjahjono, H. K., El Qadri, Z. M., & Prajogo, W. (2020). The influence of organizational justice and positive organizational behavior: Systematic review and call for future research. The Journal of Social Sciences Research, 6(1), 67-84.

Hadi,S., Tjahjono,H.K., & Palupi, M. (2020). Study of organizational justice in SMEs and positive consequences: Systematic review. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29, 3-14.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B, & Anderson, R.(2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hair, J.F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M.(2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed, a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice,19(2), 139–151.

Hair,J.F., Sarstedt,M., Ringle,C.M. & Mena,A.J.(2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academic Marketing Science,40, 414 – 433.

Hair, J.F., Black, WC., Babin, BJ., Anderson, A.E, & Tatham, R.L. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson Publications, San Francisco, NY.

Hair,J.F., Hult,G.T.M., Ringle,C.M., & Sarstedt,M.(2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hamid, S., Sami, W., & Sidek, M.(2017). Discriminant validity assessment: Use of Fornell & Larcker criterion versus HTMT Criterion. Journal of Physics, Conference Series. 890 (2017) 012163,

Harman, H. H. (1960). Modern factor analysis. Univ. of Chicago Press.

Henseler,J., Ringle,C.M., & Sinkovics,R.R.(2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing,20, 277–319.

Henseler,J., Dijkstra,T.K. , Sarstedt,M. , Ringle, C.M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D.W. Ketchen, D.J.Jr, Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., & Calantone, R.J.(2014), Common beliefs and reality about PLS: Comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods,17(2), 182-209.

Henseler,J., Ringle,C.M., & Sarstedt,M.(2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,43(1), 115 – 135.

Hulin,C., Netemeyer,R., & Cudeck,R.(2001). Can a reliability coefficient be too high?. Journal of Consumer Psychology,10(1), 55-58.

IBEF (2019). IT and ITeS Industry in India. Retrieved from


Jafari, F., Salari, N., Hosseinian-Far, A., Abdi, A., & Ezatizadeh, N. (2021). Predicting positive organizational behavior based on structural and psychological empowerment among nurses. Cost Effective Resource Allocation, 19(38), 1-9.

Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J.E., & Patton, G.K. (2001). The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376–407.

Kim, M., Kim, A., Newman, J.I., Ferris, G.R., & Perrewé, P. L. (2019). The antecedents and consequences of positive organizational behaviour: The role of psychological capital for promoting employee well–being in sport organizations. Sport Management Review, 22(1), 108-125.

Kim, T., Yoo, J., Lee, G., & Kim, J. (2012). Emotional intelligence and emotional labor acting strategies among frontline hotel employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,24(7), 1029 - 1046.

Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin,119, 254–284.

Krietner, R. & Kinicki, A. (2004). Organizational Behaviour. Boston, MA: McGraw Hills, Irwin.

Lengnick-Hall, C. A., & Beck, T. E. (2009). Resilience capacity and strategic agility: Prerequisites for thriving in a dynamic environment. In C. Nemeth, E. Hollnagel, & S. Dekker (Eds), Resilience engineering perspectives (2nd ed.). Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

Linley, P.A., Joseph, S., Harrington, S., & Wood, A.M. (2006). Positive psychology: Past, present, and (possible) future. The Journal of Positive Psychology,1(1), 3–16.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Luthans, F. (2002a). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behaviour,23(6), 695–706.

Luthans, F. (2002b). Positive organizational behavior: Developing and managing psychological strengths. Academy of Management Executive,16, 57–72.

Luthans, F. (2003). Positive organizational behavior (POB): Implications for leadership and HR development and motivation. In R. M. Steers, L. W. Porter, & G. A. Begley (Eds.), Motivation and leadership at work (pp.187-195). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Luthans, F., & Peterson, S. (2002). Employee engagement and manager self–efficacy: Implications for managerial effectiveness and development. The Journal of Management Development,21(5), 376 – 387.

Luthans, F. Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B., & Norman, S.M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541-572.

Luthans, F., Avolio, J.B., Walumbwa, O.F., & Li, W.,(2005). The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance. Management and Organization Review,1(2), 249 – 271.

Luthans, F., Stajkovic,A.D., & Ibrayeva,E.(2000). Environmental and psychological challenges facing entrepreneurial development in transitional economies. Journal of World Business,35(1), 95-110.

Luthans, F., & Youssef, C.M. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management,33, 321-349.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C.M., & Avolio, B.J. (2007); Emerging positive organizational behaviour. Journal of Management,33(3), 321–349.

Luthans, F., Youssef, C.M., & Rawski, S.L. (2011). A tale of two paradigms: The impact of psychological capital and reinforcing feedback on problem solving and innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management,31(4), 333–350.

Marques, S., Lopez, S., & Mitchell, Joanna (2013). The role of hope, spirituality and religious practice in adolescents’ life satisfaction: Longitudinal findings. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1), 251 – 261.

Medlin, B., & Green, W. K. (2009). Enhancing performance through goal setting, engagement and optimism. Industrial Management and Data Systems,109(7), 943 – 956.

Medlin, B., & Faulk, L. (2011). The relationship between optimism and engagement: The impact on student performance. Research in Higher Education Journal, 13, 12 – 22.

Mishra, P., & Mohapatra, Das (2010). Relevance of emotional intelligence for effective job performance: An empirical study. Vikalpa, 35(1), 53 – 61.

Muse, A.L., Harris, G.S., Giles, F.W., & Field, S. H. (2008). Work-life benefits and positive organizational behavior: Is there a connection?. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 29(2), 171 – 192.

Paglis, L.L. (2010). Leadership self‐efficacy: Research findings and practical applications. Journal of Management Development,29(9), 771-782.

Pan, X. F. (2008). An empirical study of positive organizational behavior of the staff in manufacturing-type enterprises.( Doctoral dissertation). Southwest University, Chongqing.

Pan, X.F., & Qin, Q.W. (2009). An exploring study on the structure of positive organizational behavior of the staff in manufacturing-type enterprises. Psychological Science,32(6), 1468-1470.

Pan, X. F., Qin, Q., & Gao, F. (2014). Psychological ownership, organization–based self- esteem and positive organizational behaviors. Chinese Management Studies,8(1), 127 – 148.

Pan, X.F., Chen M, Hao, Z., & Bi, W. (2018). The effects of organizational justice on positive organizational behavior: Evidence from a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. Frontiers in Psychology,8, 15-23.

Paul, H., Bamel, Kr. U., & Garg, P. (2016). Employee resilience and OCB: Mediating effects of organizational commitment. Vikalpa,41(4), 308 – 324.

Peng, M. W. (2001). How entrepreneurs create wealth in transition economies. Academy of Management Executive,15, 95–110.

Peterson, S.I., & Luthans, F. (2003). The positive impact and development of hopeful leaders. Leadership and Organization Development Journal,24(1), 26-31.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pouramini, Z., & Fayyazi, M. (2015). The relationship between positive organizational behavior with job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and employee engagement. International Business Research, 8(9), 57 – 66.

Preston,C., & Colman, M.A.(2000). An optimal number of response categories in rating scales: Reliability, validity, discriminating power and respondent preferences. Acta Psychologica,104, 1 – 15.

Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership, and Organization Development Journal,26(5),388 – 399.

Rusk, R. D., & Waters, L. E. (2013). Tracing the size, reach, impact, and breadth of positive psychology. The Journal of Positive Psychology,8(3), 207-221.

Salovey,P. & Mayer,J.(1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality,9(3), 185-211.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C.S., & Bridges, M. W. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and psychological well-being. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice(pp. 189- 216). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Seligman, M. (1998). Learned optimism. New York: Pocket Books.

Seligman, M. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfilment. New York: Free Press.

Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist,55, 5–14.

Sheldon, K.M., & King, L.K. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary. American Psychologist,56, 216-217.

Shin, J., Taylor, M.S., & Seo, M.G. (2012). Resources for change: The relationships of organizational inducements and psychological resilience to employees’ attitudes and behaviors toward organizational change. Academy of Management Journal,55(3), 727–748.

Siu, O., Hui, C.H., Phillips, D.R., Lin, L., Wong, T., & Shi, K. (2009). A study of resiliency among Chinese health care workers: Capacity to cope with workplace stress. Journal of Research in Personality,43(5), 770–776.

Snyder, C.R. (1994). Hope and optimism. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior,2, 535-542.

Snyder, C.R. (2000). Handbook of hope. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Snyder, C.R., & Lopez, S. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585.

Snyder, C. R., Rand, K. L., & Sigmon, D. R. (2002). Hope theory: A member of the positive psychology family. In C. R. Snyder &S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology(pp. 257-276). New York, US: Oxford University Press.

Snyder, C.R., Sympson, S.C., Michael, S.T., & Cheavens, J. (2000). The optimism and hope constructs: Variants on a positive expectancy theme. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism (pp. 103 – 124). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Snyder, C.R., Sympson, S.C., Ybasco, F.C., Borders, T.F., Babyak, M.A., & Higgins, R.L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,70, 321-335.

Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self–efficacy, and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin,124(2), 240 – 261.

Stewart, M., Reid, G., & Mangham, C. (1997). Fostering children’s resilience. Journal of Pediatric Nursing,12, 21-31.

Sutcliffe, K.M., & Vogus, T. (2003). Organizing for resilience. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship(pp. 94-110). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Teo,T.S.H., Srivastava,S.C., & Jiang,L.(2008). Trust and electronic government success: An empirical study. Journal of Management Information Systems,25(3), 99- 132.

Teo, S. T., Roche, M., Pick, D., & Newton, C. J. (2014). Psychological capital as moderator of organizational change demands on nursing stress. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings, Location.

Tripathi, A., &Sharma, P. (2009). IT firms raise the ratio of juniors in staff. Retrieved from .

Vohra, N., & Goel, A. (2009). Influence of positive characteristics on organizational commitment and job satisfaction of Indian middle managers.Working paper series WPS No.63 . Calcutta: Indian Institute of Management (IIM).

Weinberger, L. (2002). Emotional intelligence: It’s connection to HRD theory and practice. Human Resource Development Review,1(2), 215 – 243.

Wood, R.E., Mento, A.J., & Locke, E.A. (1987). Task complexity as a moderator of goal effects: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology,72, 416–425.

Youssef, M.C., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behaviour in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management,33(5), 774 – 800.

Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2012). Positive global leadership. Journal of World Business,47(4), 539–547.




How to Cite

Khatri , P. ., & Dutta, S. . (2022). Development and Validation of Positive Organizational Behaviour Scale: A Reflective Measurement Model. Thailand and The World Economy, 40(3), 87–108. Retrieved from