Investigating Factors in Quality of Work-life in Indian Garment Industry at Bangalore
Keywords:Quality of Work Life (QWL), Garments, Stress, Labour, Factors, Market
The Indian manufacturing sector has a long way to go in enhancing work-life standards for employees. Low standards of work-life hamper the productivity of an organization. Most employees of garment manufacturing units in Bengaluru are from outer rural areas. They come in search of employment in garment units. Though there are labour acts and labour laws, most of the manufacturing units provide poor job environments for employees. This leads to fluctuations in the performance of employees and would have detrimental effects on their health and performance, resulting in attrition. Quality of work life is the solution. This paper aims at unravelling factors leading to recognition of work-life standards so those garment units can work in that dimension to solve their productivity issues and also improve the happiness of their employees. A descriptive approach was made to attain objectives with survey-based data collection. The collected data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study found welfare and safety lead to a quality of work-life in garment units. More cross-sectoral studies are suggested to understand the blend of factors defining the quality of work life and arrive at a generalized model nation-wide. This generalization in the long term should be a key decision-making point for safety and welfare policy development in the world.
Adkins, C. L, & Premeaux, S. A. (2014). The use of communication technology to manage work-home boundaries . Journal of Behavioral & Applied Management, 15(2), 82-100.
Almogbel, Y. (2021). The effect of occupational stress on the quality of life of pharmacists in Saudi Arabia. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 14, 643.
Alserhan, H., Al-Adamat, A., & Al-Adamat, O. (2021). The mediating effect of employee happiness on the relationship between quality of work-life and employee intention to quit: A study on fast-food restaurants in Jordan. Management Science Letters, 11(3), 933-938.
Anderson, R, Dubois, H., Leončikas, T., & Sándor, E. (2012). Third European quality of life survey quality of life in Europe: Impacts of the crisis. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Azevedo, B. D. S., Nery, A. A., & Cardoso, J. P. (2017). Occupational stress and dissatisfaction with quality of work life in nursing, Texto & Contexto-Enferm, 26(1), 5-7.
Beamond, M.T., Farndale, E. & Härtel, C.E. (2016). MNE translation of corporate talent management strategies to subsidiaries in emerging economies, Journal of World Business, 51 (4), 499-510.
Beukema, L. (1987), Kwaliteit Van De Arbeidstijdverkorting Groningen: Karstapel [Quality of reduction of working hours]. In: Suzanne, E.J. Arts, Ada Kerkstra, Jouke Van Der Zee, and Huda Huyer Abu Saad, (Eds.) (2001). quality of working life and workload in home help services: A review of the literature and a proposal for a research model. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Society, 15, 12-24.
Beutell, N. J., & Schneer, J. A. (2014). Work-family conflict and synergy among Hispanics, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 29(6), 705-735.
Bray, M., Budd, J.W., & Macneil, J. (2019). The many meanings of co-operations in the employment relationships and their implications. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 10(11), 1–14.
Cascio, W. F. (1998). Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits (8th ed.). Irwin: McGraw-Hill.
Choudhury, S., Mohapatra, A. D., & Mohanty, M. K. (2021). Factors predicting employee engagement in Indian manufacturing sector. International Journal of Services and Operations Management, 38(1), 92-109.
Cote, M., & Nightingale. A.J (2012). Resilience thinking meets social theory: Situating social change in socio-ecological systems (SES) research. Progress in Human Geography, 36(4), 475–489.
Da Silva, M. C., da Luz, V. B., & Gil, D. (2013). Noise in the hospital setting: Impact on quality of life. Audiology-Communication Research, 18(2), 109-119.
De Bustillo, RM., José Ignacio Antón FE, Fernández-Macías Enrique. (2011). Measuring more than money: The social economics of job quality. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, UK
De Lira, C. R. N., Akutsu, R. D. C., Costa, P. R. D. F., Leite, L. D. O., da Silva, K. B. B., Botelho, R., ... & Zandonadi, R. P. (2021). Occupational risks in hospitals, quality of life, and quality of work life: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(21), pp 11434.
Drobnic, S., Beham, B., & Präg, P. (2010). Good job, good life? Working conditions and quality of life in Europe. Social indicators research, 99(2), 205-225.
Eisapareh, K., Nazari, M., Kaveh, M. H., & Ghahremani, L. (2020). The relationship between job stress and health literacy with the quality of work life among Iranian industrial workers: The moderating role of social support. Current Psychology, 14(2), 1-9.
Elizur, D., & Shye, S. (1990). Quality of Work Life and its relation to quality of life. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 39(3), 275-291.
Els, V., Brouwers, M., & Lodewyk, R. B. (2021). Quality of work life: Effects on turnover intention and organisational commitment amongst selected South African manufacturing organisations. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 1407.
Enthemkuzhy, A. (1989). A study of the human resources development practices in Indian organisations a study of HRD profile HRD climate and organisational effectiveness, PhD Dissertation, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad
Parent-Thirion, A., Vermeylen, G., Van Houten, G., Lyly-Yrja¨na¨inen, M., Biletta, I., & Cabrita, J. (2012). Fifth European working conditions survey: Overview report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Leschhke, J, Watt, A & Finn, M(2012). Job quality in the crisis -an update of the Job Quality Index (JQI). Retrieved from https://www.etui.org/Publications2/Working- Papers/Job-quality-in-the-crisis-an-update-of-the-Job-Quality-Index-JQI.
Ferguson, M., Carlson, D., & Kacmar, K. M. (2014). Flexing work boundaries: The spillover and crossover of workplace support. Personnel Psychology, 68, 581-614.
Ferrero, I., Hoffman, W. M., & McNulty, R. E. (2014). Must Milton Friedman embrace stakeholder theory? Business and Society Review, 119, 37-47.
Foster, K., Roche, M., Giandinoto, J. A., Platania‐Phung, C., & Furness, T. (2021). Mental health matters: A cross‐sectional study of mental health nurses’ health‐related quality of life and work‐related stressors. International journal of mental health nursing, 30(3), 624-634.
Galinsky, E., Aumann, K., & Bond, J. T. (2013). Times are changing: Gender and generation at work and at home in the USA. In Expanding the boundaries of work-family research (pp. 279-296). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Ganiyu, I. O., Fields, Z., Atiku, S. O., & Derera, E. (2020). Measuring the effectiveness of work–life balance strategies in the manufacturing sector. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(1), 1-10.
Ghasemi, H., & Mehrabian, F. (2017). The relation of working life quality with burnout: Evidence from a social security organization. Journal of Economic & Management Perspectives, 11(4), 760-765.
Goh, Z., Ilies, R., & Wilson, K. S. (2015). Supportive supervisors improve employees' daily lives: The role supervisors play in the impact of daily workload on life satisfaction via work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89, 65-73.
Goodrum, P. M. (2003). Worker satisfaction and job preferences in the US construction industry. In Construction Research Congress: Wind of Change: Integration and Innovation (pp. 1-8).
Gordon, J. R., & Hood, E. (2020). Organization-based self-esteem and work-life outcomes. Personnel Review, 8(2), 113.
Gopinath, R. (2020). An investigation of the relationship between self-actualization and job satisfaction of academic leaders. International Journal of Management (IJM), 11(8), 753-763.
Greenberg, J., & Baron, R.A. (1977). Behaviour in Organisations (6th ed). New Jersey: Prentice - Hall, Inc.
Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Bodner, T., & Crain, T. (2013). Measurement development and validation of the family supportive supervisor behavior short- form (FSSB-SF). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 285-296.
Henz, U., & Mills, C. (2015). Work-life conflict in Britain: Job demands and resources. European Sociological Review, 31, 1-13.
Gadon, H (1984). Making sense of quality of work life programs. Business Horizons, 27(1), 42-46.
Holman, D. (2013). Job types and job quality in Europe. Human Relations, 66(4), 475-502.
Hyun, J. C., & Kim, Y. T. (2012). Work-family conflict, work-family facilitation, and job outcomes in the Korean hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24, 1011-1028. .
International Science Congress Association (ISCA), (2014). Quality of Work Life with Special Reference to Academic Sector. Research Journal of Management Sciences, 3 (1), 14-17.
Jayakumar, A., & Kalaiselvi, K. (2012). Quality of work life-an overview. International Journal of Marketing-Financial Services & Management Research, 1(10), 140-151.
Jenkins, D. (1981). QWL, Current Trends and Directions (No. 3). Ontario Quality of Working Life Centre.
Kim, H. J., & Kim, H. Y. (2017). Emotional labor, job stress and professional quality of life among nurses in long-term care hospital. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 29(3), 290-301.
Klatt, Murdick, and Schuster (1985), Human Resource Management, Ohio, Charter E. Merrul Publishing Company, pp.585-592.
Knox, S., & Irving, J. A. (1997). An interactive quality of work life model applied to organizational transition. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 27(1), 39-47.
Kossek, E.E; Lautsch, B A (2012). Work-family boundary management styles in organizations: A cross-level model. Organizational Psychology Review, 2( 2), 152-171.
Kularathne, H. M. R. D., & Senevirathne, Y. Y. (2020). The relationship between co-worker support, supervisor support, organizational support and employee turnover intention of operational level employees in apparel sector, central province, Sri Lanka. International Journal of All Research Writings, 2(8), 7-17.
Lambert, V. A., Lambert, C. E., Itano, J., Inouye, J., Kim, S., Kuniviktikul, W., & Ito, M. (2004). Cross-cultural comparison of workplace stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses in Japan, Thailand, South Korea and the USA (Hawaii). International journal of nursing studies, 41(6), 671-684.
Lawler, E. E. (1982). Strategies for improving the quality of work life. American psychologist, 37(5), 486.
Lundell, M. A., & Marcham, C. L. (2018). Leadership’s effect on safety culture. Professional Safety, 63(11), 36-43.
Luxmi. (2012). Implications of quality of work life on stress level an empirical Study. BVIMSR’s Journal of Management Research, 4(1), 35-47.
Makabe, S., Kowitlawakul, Y., Nurumal, M. S., Takagai, J., Wichaikhum, O. A., Wangmo, N., ... & Asanuma, Y. (2018). Investigation of the key determinants of Asian nurses’ quality of life. Industrial health, 56(3), 212-219.
Mandl, I., Celikel-Esser, F. & Eurofound, ., (2013). Born global: The potential of job creation in new international businesses, Eurofound. Retrieved from https://policycommons.net/artifacts/1827292/born-global/2567674/ on 17 May 2022. CID: 20.500.12592/whvg0f.
Marshall, G.H., & Stephenson, S.M. (2020). Burnout and turnover intention among electronics manufacturing employees in South Africa. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 46(0), 1–11.
Mohan, A. (2017). India: 1 in 7 women garment workers in Bangalore factories experience sexual harassment; Survivors not likely to complain fearing social stigma. Retrieved from https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/india-1-in-7-women-garment-workers-in-bangalore -factories-experience-sexual-harassment-survivors-not-likely-to-complain-fearing-social-stigma/
Mokyr, J. (2018). The British industrial revolution: An economic perspective. Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Mullins, L.J. (1996). Management and Organisational Behaviour. (4th edition). London: Pitman publishing.
Muskat, B., & Reitsamer, B. F. (2019). Quality of work life and Generation Y: How gender and organizational type moderate job satisfaction. Personnel Review, 49(1), 265-283.
Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., Swamy, D. R., & Nagesh, P. (2020). Leadership styles in mediating the relationship between quality of work life and employee commitment. International Journal for Quality Research, 14(2), 387-412.
Narehan, H. (2014). The effect of quality of work life (QWL) programs on quality of life (QOL) among employees at multinational companies in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 24 - 34
Nauman, S., Zheng, C., & Basit, A. A. (2020). How despotic leadership jeopardizes employees' performance: The roles of quality of work life and work withdrawal. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 42(1) 1-16.
Neuman, A., Thanacoody, R., & Hui, W. (2012). The effects of perceived organizational support, perceived supervisor support and intra-organizational network resources on turnover intentions. Personnel Review, 41, 56-72.
Nowrouzi, B., Lightfoot, N., Carter, L., Larivière, M., Rukholm, E., Schinke, R., & Belanger-Gardner, D. (2015). The relationship between quality of work life and location of cross-training among obstetric nurses in urban northeastern Ontario, Canada: A population-based crosssectional study. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 28(3), 571
Nykodym, N., Longenecker, C.O., & Ruud, W.N. (1991). Improving quality of work life with transactional analysis as an intervention change strategy. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 40(4), 395-404.
O'Brien-Pallas, L., & Baumann, A. (1992). Quality of nursing work life issues: A unifying framework. Canadian Journal of Nursing Administration, 5(2), 12-16.
O'Brien-Pallas, L., Baumann, A., & Villeneuve, M. (1994). Research unit probes quality of work life. Registered Nurse, 6(1), 14-16.
Paliokaite, A (2013) Greening of Industries in the EU: Anticipating and Managing the Effects on Quantity and Quality of Jobs, available at: www.eurofound.europa.eu/publi cations/htmlfiles/efl248.htm (accessed 25 February 2013).
Paltu, A., & Brouwers, M. (2020). Toxic leadership: Effects on job satisfaction, commitment, turnover intention and organisational culture within the South African manufacturing industry. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(0), 1–11.
Parameshwari, G., & Suresh, B. H. (2015). Quality of work life and job satisfaction among employees in insurance industry - A study of Mysore district. Global Journal for Research Analysis, 4(11), 27-32.
Park, M. (2014). Job satisfaction of social workers in senior welfare centers in South Korea: The effects of individual, client and organizational factors. Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, 24(3), 184-195.
Pedersen, D. E. (2015). Work characteristics and the preventive health behaviors and subjective health of married parents with preschool age children. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 36, 48-63.
Piasna, A., & Plagnol, A. (2018). Women’s job quality across family life stages: An analysis of female employees across 27 European countries. Social Indicators Research, 139(3), 1065-1084.
Pickup, S., Paton, K., Hayes, C., & Morrison, B. (2020). A day in the life of frontline manufacturing personnel: A diary-based safety study. Safety Science, 132, 104992.
Potgieter, I.L., & Mokomane, S.E. (2020). Implementation of HRM functions in selected small manufacturing companies in Ga-Rankuwa industrial area, Gauteng, South Africa. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 18, 1–11.
Ray. A (2021). (n.d.). Garment workers struggle silently with sexual harassment, The Times of India. Retrieved from https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com /
Rokni, M., Mohammadyan, M., Hashemi, S. T., Asadi, S. M., Boogaard, P. J., Heibati, B., & Abdul-Wahab, S. A. (2016). Risk assessment of workers exposed to crystalline silica aerosols. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(8), 1678-1686.
Rupert, P. A., Stevanovic, P., Hartman, E. R. T., Bryant, F. B., & Miller, A. (2012). Predicting work- family conflict and life satisfaction among professional psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43, 341-348.
Sahni, J. (2019). Role of quality of work life in determining employee engagement and organisational commitment in telecom industry. International Journal of Quality Research, 13(2), 285–300.
Saklani, D.R. (2003). Quality of work life: Instrument design. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 38(4), 480-503.
Saklani, D.R. (2010). Non-managerial perspective of quality of work life, Journal of Management Research, 10(2), 87-102.
Schieman, S., & Young, M. (2015). Who engages in work-family multitasking? A study of Canadian and American workers. Social Indicators Research, 120(3), 741-767.
Schjoedt, L. (2013). The influence of work-and-family conflict on male entrepreneurs’ life satisfaction: A comparison of entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 26, 45-65.
Sorensen, G., Sparer, E. Williams, J. A., Gundersen, D., Boden, L. I., Dennerlein, J. T. & Pronk, N. P. (2018). Measuring best practices for workplace safety, health, and well-being: The workplace integrated safety and health assessment. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60(5), 430-439.
Steers, R.M., & Porter, L.W. (1983). Motivation and Work Behaviour (3rd Ed): McGraw Hill, New York 353-470.
Stier, H. (2014). The skill-divide in job quality: A cross-national analysis of 28 countries. Social science research, 49, 70-80.
Subba Rao, P., & Alfered Neelima G. (2003). Quality of work life and organizational excellence. GITAM Journal of Management, 1(1),51-60.
Suttle, J.L.(1977). Improving life at work: Behavioural science approaches to organizational change (pp.1-25). Hackman J.R and Suttle J.L (1992) (Eds.). Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear Publishing. 199-267.
Syamsuddin, S., Kadir, A., & Andriani, Y. (2020). The influence of quality of work life (QWL) on employees’ organizational commitment. Manageria: Journal Management Pendidikan Islam, 5(2), 257-274.
Walton, R. E. (1973). Quality of work life: What is it?. Sloan Management Review, 15(1), 11-21.
Wheatley, D. (2012). Work-life balance, travel-to-work, and the dual career household. Personnel Review, 41(6), 813-831.
Wilson, K. S., & Baumann, H. M. (2015). Capturing a more complete view of employees’ lives outside of work: The introduction and development of new interrole conflict constructs. Personnel Psychology, 68, 235-282.
Wu, S., Zhu, W., Li, H., Yu, I. T. S., Lin, S., Wang, X., & Yang, S. (2010). Quality of life and its influencing factors among medical professionals in China. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 83(7), 753-761
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.