Characteristics of the Urban Poor under COVID 19 Control Measures: A Case Study in Bangkok


  • Sauwalak Kittiprapas Faculty of Economics, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, Thailand and the International Research Associate for Happy Societies (IRAH)


COVID-19, Urban Poor, Poverty, Slums, Social Protection Policy, Bangkok, Thailand


The study aims to investigate the effects of COVID-19 and highlight characteristics of the urban poor during the COVID-19 outbreak in Bangkok.  The study utilizes data from community surveys with multi-stage sampling to obtain a total of 500 samples in the slums during the first lockdown in Bangkok and displays results in descriptive statistics and empirical tests using binary and order logit models. Results show that the poor have faced the most adverse socioeconomic impacts during the COVID-19 outbreak with restrictive controls, such as experiencing the largest income reduction and deficit as well as an increasing debt ratio. Binary logit estimations indicate that the poor are likely to be those with low education and be unemployed both during and after the lockdown periods. Unemployment during the lockdown had the largest significant effect on poverty and an even greater effect in the post-lockdown. In addition, age is another significant factor for the poor after the lockdown, indicating the possibility for older-aged workers and the elderly to become poor in the post-COVID period.  Ordered logit estimations also reveal that aging has a negatively significant relationship to income level after the lockdown, while women tend to drop their income levels significantly during the lockdown when there was high unemployment. Therefore, policies should be prepared to mitigate adverse effects of the vulnerable groups. Not only should short-term policies and welfare schemes be provided during the lockdown, but policies must also be considered with a long-term human development approach in the post-COVID world. This study suggests social protection policies with comprehensive and potential concerns.


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How to Cite

Kittiprapas, S. (2023). Characteristics of the Urban Poor under COVID 19 Control Measures: A Case Study in Bangkok. Thailand and The World Economy, 41(1), 148–170. Retrieved from