Getting to Know More on Fishing Activities: Analysis of Illegal Fishing and Forced Labor in 4.0 Era

Main Article Content

Nutcha Sukhawattanakun
Panupong Chalermsin

Abstract

The objective of this academic paper is to analyze the situation of illegal fishing and the employment of illegal workers in the fishing industry. The analysis method is by introducing relevant laws and policies on both domestic and international issues during the year of 2015-2020.


The results of the analysis show that the fishing industry is of great importance to the global community as it is the source of one of the four factors from the past to the 4.0 era. It also significantly creates jobs into the labor market. However, under the growth of this industry especially in the ASEAN region, one of the underlying problems are illegal fishing and illegal labor. Illegal smuggling of foreign workers is hard to avoid in the fishing industry. Currently, Thailand has adopted legal measures for the purpose of mitigating the issue, but there are still legal gaps in the interpretation of these provisions toward the real situation. Although Thailand has ratified the International Labor Organization Convention. (ILO) on forced labor in 2007 (No. 188) and although forced labor is an offense under the international law, there is still no separate legal regulation which focus mainly on Forced Labor. It is a great challenge for each country which has differences society, culture and economic to effectively apply such legal measures to the provisions of their respective countries.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sukhawattanakun, N., & Chalermsin, P. (2021). Getting to Know More on Fishing Activities: Analysis of Illegal Fishing and Forced Labor in 4.0 Era. Ph.D. In Social Sciences Journal, 11(1), 28-39. Retrieved from https://so05.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/phdssj/article/view/247958
Section
Academic Article

References

Abdullah, W. M. A. (2019). Fisheries Dept: Malaysia loses RM6b a year to illegal fishing. Retrieved from https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2019/09/04/fisheries-dept-malaysia-losesrm6b-a-year-to-illegal-fishing/1787016

Britannica Editors. (2018). Forced labor. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/forced-labour

Christensen, J. (2016). Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing in Historical Perspective. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303514931_Illegal_Unreported_and_Unregulated_Fishing_in_Historical_Perspective

Department of Fisheries Announcement 2018. (2018). Department of Fisheries. Retrieved form http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/tha169693.pdf [In Thai]

Falaju, J. (2016). West Africa: Fishing turns pawn on African waters. Retrieved from https://www.icsf.net/en/samudra-news-alert/articledetail/54149-West-Africa--Fi.html?language=EN

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2015). GAPfish: Global Action Programme against forced labour and trafficking of fishers at sea. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_429359.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2016b). National Strategies for Compliance with Port State Measures Agreement. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/ca4953en/CA4953EN.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2016a). Agreement on Port State Measures (PSMA). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/port-state-measures/background/parties-psma/en

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2017). International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-y1224e.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2018). Support to countries to address illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing TCP/RAS/3621. Retrieved From http://www.fao.org/3/CA2195EN/ca2195en.pdf

Hamzah, B. A. (2019). Asean resolve crucial to tackle illegal fishing woes. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2019/07/504907/asean-resolve-crucial-tackle-illegalfishing-woes

International Labor Organization. (2020). What is forced labor, modern slavery and humantrafficking. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.ch/global/topics/forced-labour/definition/lang--en/index.htm

International Labour Organization. (2015). A global action program against forced labor and trafficking of fishers at sea. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/publications/WCMS_429359/lang--en/index.htm

International Labour Organization. (2019). Fishing Convention-C188: Thailand ratifies the Working in Fisheries Convention. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_667145/lang--en/index.htm

Lavrov, S. (n.d.). Quote master. Retrieved from https://www.quotemaster.org/qa9416bcaf2d362fd62126a06b4c3fd3f

Lehmköster, J. (2013). Illegal Fishing. Retrieved from https://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-2/fisheries/illegal-fishing

Lomas, C. (2019). How do you tackle illegal fishing?. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/portstate-measures/resources/detail/en/c/1196475

Manager Online. (2014). The violation of fishery labor “work as slave, menace, dead.” Retrieved from https://mgronline.com/qol/detail/9540000053716 [In Thai]

Pauly, D., & Zeller, D. (2019). Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms10244

Pramod, G., Nakamura, K., Pitcher, J. T., & Delagran, L. (2014). Estimates of illegal and unreportedfish in seafood imports to the USA. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/marine-policy/vol/48/suppl/C

Ryder, G. (n.d.). Strengthening the global fight against all forms of forced labor. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_321414.pdf

Schvatzman, M. (2018). Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in the South Atlantic. Retrieved from http://oceanosanos.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/OS-Report-0002-.pdf

The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. (2018). Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Retrieved from https://www.ccamlr.org/en/compliance/illegal-unreported-and-unregulated-iuu-fishing

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (n.d.). Fisheries Crime. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/documents/about-unodc/Campaigns/Fisheries/focus_sheet_PRINT.pdf