Guidance for Legal Reform of the Bangkok Metropolitan's Subordinate Law relating to Light Pollution

Main Article Content

Pedithep Youyuenyong



Outdoor artificial light at night is necessary for living in Bangkok and Bangkok's metropolitan population uses lights from public and private premises for many different reasons, for example, shop window display lighting, advertising lighting, street lighting and recreational area lighting. However, many forms of outdoor artificial light in Bangkok area that shine obtrusively outside the areas they need to illuminate can become light pollution. Outdoor artificial light from premises can have a detrimental impact on the environmental quality of the special administrative area. Light Pollution in the City of Bangkok not only impacts the night sky environment and the view of the night stars, but it also impact human health. Even though the Bangkok Municipal Regulations Relating to Building Control B.E. 2544 established the written criteria for interior lighting control which gives lighting requirements for indoor areas, but it does not provide specific outdoor lighting requirements and the Bangkok's district offices have no legal powers to take action against outdoor light pollution. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe about theoretical aspects of light pollution and critically analyse existing planning and building measures. This paper also introduces the specific legal techniques to control light pollution in metropolitan areas and the guidance of Bangkok municipal law reforms.

Article Details

How to Cite
Youyuenyong, P. (2017). Guidance for Legal Reform of the Bangkok Metropolitan’s Subordinate Law relating to Light Pollution. Political Science and Public Administration Journal, 4(1), 145–168. Retrieved from
Special Articles


ศุภชัย ยาวะประภาษ. 2544. นโยบายสาธารณะ. พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 4. กรุงเทพฯ: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย.

สมบัติ ธำรงธัญวงศ์์. 2549. นโยบายสาธารณะ : แนวความคิดการวิเคราะห์และกระบวนการ. พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 14. กรุงเทพฯ: สำนักพิมพ์เสมาธรรม.

สำนักยุทธศาสตร์และประเมินผล กรุงเทพมหานคร. 2552. แผนพัฒนากรุงเทพมหานคร ระยะ 12 ปี (พ.ศ. 2552-2563) กรุงเทพฯ มหานครแห่งความน่าอยู่อย่างยั่งยืน. กรุงเทพฯ: สำนักยุทธศาสตร์และประเมินผล กรุงเทพมหานคร.

สำนักยุทธศาสตร์และประเมินผล กรุงเทพมหานคร. 2553. แผนยุทธศาสตร์การพัฒนาสุขภาพคนเมืองกรุงเทพมหานคร พ.ศ. 2553-2556. กรุงเทพฯ: สำนักยุทธศาสตร์และประเมินผล กรุงเทพมหานคร.

Arizona State Legislature. 2007. Arizona House Bill 49, Chapter 7, Light Pollution. Available from accessed 4 May 2013.

Aubrecht, C., Jaiteh, M. & Sherbinin, A. 2010. Global Assessment of Light Pollution Impact on Protected Areas. New York: Austrian Institute of Technology & Columbia University.

Ball, D. 2006. Environmental Health Policy. Maidenhead: Open University Press & McGraw-Hill Education.

Common, M. 1995. Sustainability and Policy Limits to Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affair. 2006. Statutory Nuisance from Insects and Artificial Light. London: Department for Environment Food & Rural Affair.

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affair. 2010. An Investigation into Artificial Light Nuisance Complaints and Associated Guidance. London: Department for Environment Food & Rural Affair.

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. 1998. Planning for Sustainable Development: Towards Better Practice. London: Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.

House of Commons Science & Technology Committee. 2003. Light Pollution and Astronomy. London: House of Commons Science & Technology Committee.

Illuminating Engineering Society & International Dark - Sky Association. 2011. Joint IDA - IES Model Lighting Ordinance (MLO) with User's Guide. Arizona: International Dark - Sky Association.

Lowe, M. S. & Thompson, R.D. 'Pollution and Development', in Mannion, A. M. & Bowlby, S. R. (eds). 1992. Environmental Issues in the 1990s. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Ministry of the Environmental Government of Japan. 2004. Abridged and Illustrated for Easy Understanding Annual Report on the Environment in Japan 2003 Local Communities Leading the Transition to a Sustainable Society. Tokyo: Ministry of the Environmental Government of Japan.

O'Neil, J. 1993. Ecology, Policy and Politics Human Well-Being and the Natural World. London: Routledge.

Owens, S. & Cope, D. 1992. Land Use Planning Policy and Climate Change. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Pearch, D. 'The Economics of Technology-based Environmental Standards', in Helm, D. (eds). 2000. Environmental Policy Objectives, Instruments, and Implementation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Selman, P. 2000. Environmental Planning. (2nd ed.). London: SAGE publications.

Shaflik, C. 1995. Light Pollution Environmental Effects of Roadway Lighting. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.

Sheppard, C. 2011. Bird-Friendly Building Design. Virginia: American Bird Conservancy.

Teikari, P. 2007. Light Pollution: Definition, legislation, measurement, modeling and environmental effects. Barcelona: Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization & World Heritage Centre. 2012. Natural heritage relating to astronomy. Available from accessed 4 May 2013.