The followings are guidelines for those wishing to submit an article for publication in rEFLections.



  rEFLections welcomes submissions in three categories:

     1. Research articles Manuscript should be approximately 6,000 – 8,000 words, excluding references and
         appendixAn abstract should not be longer than 250 words.
     2. Academic articles Manuscript and references should be approximately 4,000 – 6,000 words with an
         abstract of 250 words.
     3. Book reviews focuses on two categoriesreferences books and textbooksManuscript should not exceed
         1,000 words. 


  1Language of publicationEnglish

  2Manuscript style:  APA Style 7th Edition

  3Manuscript length:

         - Research articles - 6,000 – 8,000 words(excluding references and appendix)
         - Academic articles - 4,000 – 6,000 words
         - Book reviews - 1,000 words

  4Manuscript format: Microsoft Word/single space, Times New Roman/12 points, and 1 inch (2.54 cm)
      margins on all sides or RTF document file format

  5. Template of article:

      5.1 Title – The title should be concise and clearly reflect the content of the article.
      5.2 Author(s) - The first and last name of the author(s) should be provided along with the institutions.
           However, since the blind review process is adopted, the names of the author should be in a separate file.
           Scroll down here for more information.
      5.3 Abstract – An abstract should summarize the article, objectives of the study, methodology used,
           findings and discussion in not over 250 words.
      5.4 Text – The text should be divided into sections for reader friendliness. The authors cannot be identified
           from the text, so all references to the authors' names within the manuscript must be replaced by the
           word "author(s)".
      5.5 Acknowledgement  This could address sources of research funding and assistance from an organization
           or personal support.
      5.6 References - Authors should follow the 7th edition of American Psychological Association style (APA
           Style 7th Edition) for the article, including references. Scroll down here for more information.
      5.7 Appendix (if available)

  6Submission requirements:

      6.1 The manuscript must be an original work that has not been published elsewhere and that is not being
           considered for publication in any other journals. See our Ethical Standards page.
      6.2 25% of the references must have been published within the last five years. For example, to submit a
           manuscript within 2020, 25% of the references must have been published from 2016 to 2020.


  1. The editors conduct an initial evaluation of an article. Articles that do not fall within the scope of the journal
      as well as length, style of writing and language accuracy will be rejected and the authors will be informed as
      soon as the decision is made. Article will also be screened for plagiarism using TurnItIn.

  2. The articles that pass the screenings will be submitted to two reviewers using double-blind review process.
      If the two reviewers do not reach an agreement, a third reviewer will be sought.

  3. The reviewers review the articles considering the academic value, academic correctness, and quality of the
      manuscript. The result of the review falls into four categories:
         - Accept
         - Accept but needs revision
         - Revise and submit
         - Reject

  4. If the article has to be revised, the authors should follow suggestions.  However, authors can justify their
      reasons for not following the reviewers' comments.  The authors should re-submit the article together with
      a separate sheet explaining their revision and/or justification within the time specified by the editor
      (normally 2-3 weeks) after receiving the feedback from the peer review committee.

  5. The editors will review the revised article for reader-friendliness and appropriate citations. The authors will
      be asked to revise the articles until the expected quality is met before the editors can confirm the
      publication of the article. The editorial team reserves the right to accept or reject articles.

  6. Authors whose manuscripts have been accepted for publication will be asked to conduct the final proofings
      in which they are required to read through their manuscripts to approve and to verify the accuracy. In case
      errors are discovered, they must notify the editors; otherwise, the editors will not take any responsibility for
      such errors.

  7. If the author breaches the ethical standard of publication, such as plagiarism and double publication, the
      article that may have been published will be retracted.


    Peer Review Process



  Copyright to the article is retained by the author(s) but rEFLections reserves the right for the article's first
  publication, and as the article will appear online (See our Archives page), it can be used for educational
  purposes but not for commercial interests.


  The submission should include the following two documents:

  1. a cover page including

      1.1 Author(s)' information including the author(s)' name(s), affiliation, address, telephone number, and e-
           mail address. If there are more than two authors, the corresponding author should be identified by an
           asterisk (*)
      1.2 A 50-word biographical statement (of each author)

  2. a manuscript – Make sure that the manuscript do not have the author(s)' name(s) since rEFLections
      adopts a blind review process.


  rEFLections publishes three issues a year, on 15 January, 15 May and 15 September. Papers can be submitted for
  consideration throughout the year.


  Previous issues are available online at


  In-Text Citations and Reference List

  Citations and references follow the APA Style 7th Edition.

  1. Citations in text

  Use an author-date citation method.

  • The Parenthetical citation: Author (Date)
  • Narrative citation: (Author, Date)
  In-text Citations
  Direct quotation

  Nida and Taber (1982) point out that "translating consists in reproducing in the receptor
  language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of
  meaning and secondly in terms of style."  (p. 12).


  …."Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural
  equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in
  terms of style"  (Nida & Taber, 1982, p. 12)

  A long quotation
  (more than
  40 words)

  Fishman (1964) defines this area of sociolinguistics:

  The study of language maintenance and language shift is concerned with the relationship
  between change and stability in habitual language use, on the one hand, and ongoing
  psychological, social and cultural processes, on the other, when populations differing in
  language are in contact with each other. (p. 32)

  A quotation
  with no page
  "Prevalence rates of antenatal major and minor depression have been estimated in
  community-based studies to range from 7% to 15% of all pregnancies" (Grote, Swartz,
  Geibel & Zuckoff, 2009, para. 2).
  Quotation /
  Giving meaning to specific symbols such as sounds and marks is considered to be the
  origin of written language (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p. 188). (Page number is
  A citation from
  a secondary

  Please only use secondary sources when absolutely necessary.

  In-text citation, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source.

  Nunan (1997, as cited in Sinclair, McGrath, & Lamb, 2000) describes autonomous
  learners as students who are active learners, consciously practising and enduring their
  learning to achieve learning goals with willingness and responsibility.

  In the reference list, give the secondary source:

  Sinclair, B., McGrath, I., & Lamb, T. (2000). Learner Autonomy, Teacher Autonomy:
  Future Directions
, London, England: Longman.


2. Reference List

 Journal articles


  Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the article: Subtitle. Title of the Journal,
          Volume number
(Issue number), page-page.


  1 and 2 author
  Storch, N. (2005). Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students’ reflections.
          Journal of Second Language Writing, 14(3), 153-173.
  Gülbahar, Y., & Madran, O. (2009). Communication and collaboration, satisfaction,
          equity, and autonomy in blended learning environments: A case from Turkey.
          International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(2), 1-22.

  More than 2 authors
  Loo, D. B., Trakulkasemsuk, W., & Jimarkon Zilli, P. (2017). Examining narratives of
          conflict and agency: Insights into non-local English teacher identity. The Journal of
          Asia TEFL, 14
(2), 292-306.

  With DOI (include DOI in the reference after the publisher name)
  Wichadee, S. (2018). Significant predictors for effectiveness of blended learning in a
          language course. The JALT CALL Journal, 14(1), 25-42.

  An article within a special issue (Use the format for a journal article.)
  Watson Todd, R. (2009). Why investigate large class? rEFLections, 9.

 Magazine and news articles


  Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year, Month dd). Title of the article: Subtitle. Title of the
          publication, Volume number
(Issue number), page-page.


  Lyons, D. (2009, June 15). Don’t ‘iTune’ us: It’s geeks versus writers. Guess who’s
          winning. Newsweek, 153(24), 27.

  Without the name of the author(s)
  Desperation for mechanical engineers. (2019, November). New Zealand Engineering
          News, 41
(21), 11.

  With DOI
  Schaefer, N. K., & Shapiro, B. (2019, September 6). New middle chapter in the story of
          human evolution. Science, 365(6457), 981–982.

  Without DOI, but having a URL
  Fry, G. W. (2013, November 26), Thailand’s new language policy helps enhance cultural
          democracy. The Nation.

 Books and eBooks


  Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle. Publisher Name.


  Whole authored book
  Bhatia, V. K. (2014). Analysing genre: Language use in professional settings. Routledge.

  With DOI
  Ewert, E. W., Mitten, D. S., & Overholt, J. R. (2014). Natural environments and human
CAB International.

  New edition of a book (Put the new edition at the end of the book title.)
  Yin, R. K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Sage

  Whole edited book (Use the editor’ name(s) instead of the author(s).)
  Fishman, J. A. (Ed.) (1999). Handbook of language and ethnic identity. Oxford University
  Hygum, E., & Pedersen, P. M. (Eds.). (2010). Early childhood education: Values and
          practices in Denmark
. Hans Reitzels Forlag.

  eBook with stable URL
  Larmer, J. (2019). Gold standard PBL: Essential project design elements. Buck Institute
          for Education.

 Chapter in an edited book


  Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of the article. In A. A. Author & B. B. Author
          (Eds.), Title of book: Subtitle (pp-pp).Publisher Name.


  Chapter in an edited book
  Polio, C., & J. H. Park (2016). Language development in second language writing. In R.
          M. Manchón & P. Matsuda (Eds.), Handbook of second and foreign language writing
          (pp. 287-306). Routledge.

  Chapter in an edited book with DOI
  Sharma, R., Mehta, M., & Dhawan, A. (2015). Treatment of substance-abusing
          adolescents. In M. Mehta & R. Sagar (Eds.), A practical approach to cognitive
          behaviour therapy for adolescents
(pp. 331–361). Springer.

  Dictionary and encyclopedia
  Oxford University Press. (2010). Biomorph. In Oxford English dictionary (3rd ed.).

 Organization documents and reports


  Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year) or (Year, Month day). Title of the report. Publisher
          Name. (DOI or URL)
  Name of group. (Year) or (Year, Month day). Title of the report. Publisher Name. (DOI or


  British Council (n.d.). IELTS TASK 2 Writing band descriptors (public version).

  Ministry of Education. (2001). English teaching syllabus for English program in Higher
. Foreign Language Teaching and Researching Press.

 Conference papers and presentations


  Presenter, A. & Presenter, B. (Year, Month dd-dd). Title of conference paper or poster
          [Types of contribution]. Conference Names, Location.


  Conference articles in regularly published conference proceedings (Use the journal article format.)
  Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic
          nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of
          Sciences of the United States of America, 105
(34), 12593-12598.

  Conference proceedings published in a journal (Use the journal article format.)
  Duckworth, A. L., Quirk, A., Gallop, R., Hoyle, R. H., Kelly, D. R. & Matthews, M. D.
          (2019). Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success. Proceedings of the
          National Academy of Sciences
, USA, 116(47), 23499–23504.

  Conference proceedings published as a whole book (Use the book format.)
  Kushilevitz, E., & Malkin, T. (Eds.). (2016). Lecture notes in computer science: Vol.
          9562. Theory of cryptography
. Springer.

  Conference proceedings published as a book chapter (Use the edited book chapter format.)
  Bedenel, A.-L., Jourdan, L., & Biernacki, C. (2019). Probability estimation by an adapted
          genetic algorithm in web insurance. In R. Battiti, M. Brunato, I. Kotsireas, & P.
          Pardalos (Eds.), Lecture notes in computer science: Vol. 11353. Learning and
          intelligent optimization
(pp. 225–240). Springer.

  Conference paper presentation
  Adunyarittigun, D., & Grant, R. (1999, March 9-13). Reciprocal teaching, comprehension,
          and reader self-perception
 [Paper presentation]. 33rd Annual Convention and
          Exposition TESOL, New York, USA.

  Conference poster presentation
  McGoudall, J., Durbin, P., Schlatter, T., McGale, M. & Jerabek, A. (2019, October 21–25).
          Dataverse 'Instrallation Personas': A UX concept adopted to enable the navigation
          of Dataverse installations, for the purpose of sharing ideas and technical
          experiences by the international community
[Poster presentation]. eResearch
          Australasia Conference, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. https://conference.eresearch.


 Theses and dissertations


  Format for published theses and dissertations  (available in a database, a university archive or from a personal website)
  Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Doctoral or Master’s thesis or dissertation, Name of the
          Institution]. Database Name.  URL  OR  Archive Name.  URL


  Fitzpatrick, D. (2011). Making sense of the English language policy in Thailand: An
          exploration of teachers’ practices and dispositions
[Doctoral dissertation, University
          of Exeter]. University of Exeter Repository. https://


  Format for unpublished theses and dissertations (sourced directly from the university in print form)
  Author, A. A. (Year). Title [Unpublished doctoral OR master's thesis or dissertation].
          Name of the Institution awarding the degree.


  Puripunyavanich, M. (2017). Developing oral communication ability of economics
          undergraduates through the instruction of learning and communication strategies

          [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Thammasat University.



  Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Or (Year, Month). OR (Year, Month date). Title of the
          work: Subtitle.
Website name. https://xxxxxx OR Retrieved Month Day, Year, from


  Webpage on a website with an individual author
  Sparks, D. (2019). Women's wellness: Lifestyle strategies ease some bladder control
. Mayo Clinic. https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic. org/discussion/womens-
  Monaghan, E. (2019, December 10). 5 reasons modern slavery at sea is still possible in
. Greenpeace.

  Webpage on a website with a group author
  Ministry of Health. (2018, August 2). Maori disability support services.  https:// www.

  Include a retrieval date when the content is designed to change over time and the page is not archived.
  Stirling, J., Hamer, M., & Hughes, B. (2016, July 29). Dopamine for use in paediatric
. Auckland District Health Board. Retrieved January 28, 2020, from