Main Article Content
Although listening is key to communication, it remains the least studied skill compared to other skills, both at the national and international levels, among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). There is also often a lack of awareness among scholars and teachers of how listening takes place, how it is best taught, and how it can be studied. To fill this gap, this study investigated the process of listening activated by Thai EFL learners while listening for comprehension. Twenty-four undergraduate participants were asked to complete a 30-minute multiple-choice listening test, with stimulated recalls conducted immediately afterward. Their stimulated recall transcriptions, listening notes and test responses were analyzed to identify which cognitive processes and strategies they used while listening and to investigate the extent that they were successful as listeners. The results showed that although the participants activated cognitive processes for listening at both the lower and higher levels, the majority, both high and low ability listeners, reported relying more on processes at the lower level (word recognition and parsing). Common strategies used by the participants are inferencing, elaboration, and comprehension monitoring. The activation of the cognitive processes and strategies was interactive and interrelated in a very complex way. Based on the findings, implications are discussed for how effective listening skills are best taught in the EFL classroom, what kinds of materials should be used, and how listening skills can best be assessed.
Anderson, J. R. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications. Worth Publishers.
Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. (2010). Language assessment in practice. Oxford University Press.
Barkaoui, K., Brooks, L., Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2013). Test-Takers’ strategic behaviors in independent and integrated speaking tasks. Applied Linguistics, 34(3), 304-324. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams046
Buck, G. (2001). Assessing listening. Cambridge University Press.
Chien, C., & Wei, L. (1998). The strategy use in listening comprehension for EFL learners in Taiwan. RELC Journal, 29(1), 66-91. https://doi.org/10.1177/003368829802900105
Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. Longman.
Cubalit, A. N. (2016). Listening comprehension problems of Thai English learners. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language, Literature & Society (pp.207-214). Sri Lanka: International Center for Research and Development.
Dong, J. (2016). A dynamic systems theory approach to development of listening strategy use and listening performance. System, 63, 149-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.10. 004
Færch, C., & Kasper, G. (1986). The role of comprehension in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 7(3), 257-274.
Field, J. (2013). Cognitive validity. In A. Geranpayeh & L. Taylor (Eds.), Examining listening: Research and practice in assessing second language listening (pp. 77-151). MPG Books Group.
Franz, J., & Teo. A. (2017). ‘A2 is Normal’-Thai secondary school English teachers’ encounters with the CEFR. RELC Journal, 49(3), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217738816
Goh, C. C. M. (2002). Exploring listening comprehension tactics and their interaction patterns. System, 30, 185-206.
Graham, S., Santos, D., & Vanderplank, R. (2008). Listening comprehension and strategy use: A longitudinal exploration. System, 36(1), 52-68.
Halone, K. K., Cunconan, T. M., Coakley, C. G., & Wolvin, A. D. (1998). Toward the establishment of general dimensions underlying the listening process. International Journal of Listening, 12(1), 12-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/10904018.1998.10499016
Hauser, M. F., & Hughes, M. A. (1988). Defining the cognitive process of listening: A dream or reality?. International Listening Association. Journal, 2(1), 75-88. https://doi.org/10. 1080/10904018.1988.10499098
Hayes, D. (2010). Language learning, teaching and educational reform in rural Thailand: An English teacher’s perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 30(3), 305-319.
Hiranburana, K., Subphadoongchone, P., Tangkiengsirisin, S., Phoocharoensil, S., Gainey, J, Thogsngsri, J., Sumonsriworakun, P., Somphong, M., Sappapan, P., & Taylor, P. (2018). A Framework of Reference for English Language Education in Thailand (FRELE-TH) ― based on the CEFR, The Thai experience. LEARN Journal, 10 (2), 90-119.
Imsa-ard, P. (2020). Voices from Thai EFL teachers: Perceptions and beliefs towards the English test in the national examination in Thailand. LEARN Journal, 13(2), 269-287.
Mahdavi, N., & Miri, M. (2017). Co-shaping metacognitive awareness and developing listening comprehension through process-based instruction. International Journal of Listening, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/10904018.2016.1260454
Ngo, N. (2019). Understanding the impact of listening strategy instruction on listening strategy use from a sociocultural perspective. System, 81, 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. system.2019.01.002.
O’Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10(4), 418-437.
Oxford, R. L. (2017). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-regulation in context. Routledge.
Oxford, R. L., Rubin, J., Schramm, K., Lavine, R., Gunning, P., & Nel, C. (2014). The learning strategy prism: Perspectives of learning strategy experts. System, 43, 30-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.02.004
Phakiti, A. (2003). A closer look at the relationship of cognitive and metacogntive strategy use to EFL reading achievement test performance. Language Testing, 20(1), 26-56. https://doi.org/10.1191/0265532203lt243oa.
Poole, A. (2016). Reading strategies and academic success: The case of first-semester college males. Journal of College Student Retention, 1-19.
Prapaisit de Segovia, L., & Hardison, D. M. (2009). Implementing education reform: EFL teachers’ perspectives. ELT Journal, 63 (2), 154-162.
Purpura, J. E. (1999). Learner strategy use and performance on language tests: A structural equation modeling approach. Cambridge University Press.
Rost, M. (2011). Teaching and researching listening (2nd ed.). Pearson Education Limited.
Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 117-131.
Rukthong, A. (2021). MC listening questions vs. integrated listening-to-summarize tasks: What listening abilities do they assess? System, 97, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102439
Rukthong, A., & Brunfaut, T. (2020). Is anybody listening? The nature of second language listening in integrated listening-to-summarize tasks. Language Testing, 37(1), 31-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532219871470
Sunyakul, N., & Teo, A. (2020). Primary school English teachers’ application of knowledge/skills from Boot Camp to their classroom teaching practices and factors hindering their application. LEARN Journal, 13(1), 145-160.
Savski, K. (2020). Local problems and a global solution: examining the recontextualization of CEFR in Thai and Malaysian language policies. Language Policy, 19(4), 527-547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-019-09539-8
Tanewong, S. (2018). Metacognitive pedagogical sequence for less-proficient Thai EFL listeners: A comparative investigation. RELC, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688218754942
Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. C. M. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening. Routedge.
Weir, C. J. (2005). Language teasint and validation: An evidence-based approach. Antony Rowe Ltd.
Zhang, L., Goh, C. M., & Kunnan, A. J. (2014). Analysis of test takers’ metacognitive and cognitive strategy use and EFL reading test performance: A multi-sample SEM approach. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(1), 76-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2013.85377