Main Article Content
COVID-19 has led to an abrupt change from traditional classrooms and face-to-face learning to emergency online learning. The outbreak of COVID-19 in Thailand in early 2021 forced school closures and increased online learning. Students were not given a choice but to study at home. This study reports on the experience and challenges of language teachers from Thai universities who taught in emergency online settings. It examined their needs for future professional development courses. An online survey was completed by 120 EFL teachers from 52 universities across Thailand. Of these, six also participated in an online semi-structured interview. The survey findings revealed that 108 teachers (90%) had never taught online previously. ZOOM and Google Meet were among the most popular virtual meeting platforms. Support from their universities, as reported in the survey, included providing basic information and communications technology (ICT) skills workshops (75.8%), and providing workshops on integrating technology into classrooms (51.7%). The main challenges relating to online learning are the absence of a physical setting and a lack of interaction between students and teachers. In terms of future professional development needs, the data indicated that most teachers do not need courses in fundamental ICT skills or courses that expose them to a range of online technology tools. They do, however, need additional approaches to enhance their online teaching abilities, as well as certain teaching techniques to enable them to apply their pedagogical expertise while using specific technological tools or applications with which they are familiar. On the basis of these findings, pedagogical implications are discussed.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Aisyah, R. N., Setiawan, S., & Munir, A. (2021). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in action: Unraveling Indonesian English as a foreign language teachers’ TPACK by implementing Telegram. Computer Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal (CALL-EJ), 22(3), 17–32. http://callej.org/journal/22-3/Aisyah-Setiawan-Munir2021.pdf
Ally, M. (2004). Foundations of educational theory for online learning. Theory and Practice of Online Learning, 2, 15-44.
Almazova, N., Krylova, E., Rubtsova, A., & Odinokaya, M. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for Russian higher education amid COVID-19: Teachers’ perspective. Education Sciences, 10(12), 368.
Atmojo, A. E. P., & Nugroho, A. (2020). EFL classes must go online! Teaching activities and challenges during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Register Journal, 13(1), 49–76. https://journalregister.iainsalatiga.ac.id/index.php/register/article/view/4051
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), i-vi.
Buaraphan, K. (2013). Educational quality of small schools in Thailand. European Journal of Social Sciences, 41(1), 130-147.
Boonmoh, A., Jumpakate, T., & Karpklon, S. (2021). Teachers’ perceptions and experience in using technology for the classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal (CALL-EJ), 22(1), 1–24. http://callej.org/journal/22-1/Boonmoh-Jumpakate-Karpklon2021.pdf
Boonmoh, A., & Khamprem, K. (2021). Teachers’ rationale and use of technology. Human Behavior, Development and Society, 22(1), 95–106. https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/hbds/article/view/244938
Charoensuthipan, P. (2021, April 28). Third wave’s unpalatable reality. Bangkok Post. https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/special-reports/2106859/third-waves-unpalatable-reality
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE.
Compton, L. K. L. (2009). Preparing language teachers to teach languages online: A look a t skills, roles, and responsibilities. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22(1), 73–79. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09588220802613831
Creswell, J., & Plano Clark, V. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (1st ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273-284.
Green, J. K., Burrow, M. S., & Carvalho, L. (2020). Designing for transition: Supporting teachers and students cope with emergency remote education. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3), 906-922.
Hamilton, E. R., Rosenberg, J. M., & Akcaoglu, M. (2016). The Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) model: A critical review and suggestions for its use. TechTrends, 60(5), 433–441. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11528-016-0091-y
Hampel, R., & Stickler, U. (2005). New skills for new classrooms: Training tutors to teach languages online. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(4), 311–326.
Händel, M., Stephan, M., Gläser-Zikuda, M., Kopp, B., Bedenlier, S., & Ziegler, A. (2020). Digital readiness and its effects on higher education students’ socio-emotional perceptions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 1-13.
Hedayati, H. F., & Marandi, S. S. (2014). Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions of the difficulties of implementing CALL. ReCALL, 26(3), 298–314.
Hodges, C. B., Moore, S., Lockee, B. B., Trust, T., & Bond, M. A. (2020, March 27). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/thedifference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning
Intawong, K., Olson, D., & Chariyalertsak, S. (2021). Application technology to fight the COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons learned in Thailand. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 534, 830–836.
Jiang, N., Yan-Li, S., Pamanee, K., & Sriyanto, J. (2021). Depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic: Comparison among higher education students in four countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS], 29, 370–383.
Kantabutra, S., & Tang, J. C. (2006). Urban-rural and size effects on school efficiency: The case of Northern Thailand. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5(4), 355-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760600968416
Khamprem, K., & Boonmoh, A. (2019). Teachers’ stated needs and their actual use of technology. Human Behavior, Development and Society, 20(4), 41–51. https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/hbds/article/view/193626
Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.
König, J., Jäger-Biela, D. J., & Glutsch, N. (2020). Adapting to online teaching during COVID-19 school closure: Teacher education and teacher competence effects among early career teachers in Germany. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 608-622.
Kuama, S., & Intharaksa, U. (2016). Is online learning suitable for all English language students? PASAA, 52, 53–82. https://www.culi.chula.ac.th/publicationsonline/files/article/J4hsTq7ExwFri33722.pdf
Lian, A. P., & Sangarun, P. (2017). Precision language education: A glimpse into a possible future. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 17(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/gema-2017-1704-01
Llerena-Izquierdo, J., & Ayala-Carabajo, R. (2021). University teacher training during the COVID-19 emergency: The role of online teaching-learning tools. In International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (pp. 90-99). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-68418-1_10
Lu, X., Wang, M., Fang, J., & Liao, H. (2020). Investigation on the difficulties and challenges of teachers online teaching in primary and middle schools of Guangxi Middle School. In 2020 International Conference on Computer Vision, Image and Deep Learning (CVIDL) (pp. 542–545). IEEE.
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2006.00684.x
Nguyen, D. T., & Kieuthi, T. C. (2020). New trends in technology application in education and capacities of universities lecturers during the Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development (IJMPERD), 10, 1709–1714.
Niess, M. L. (2011). Investigating TPACK: Knowledge growth in teaching with technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(3), 299–317.
Nim Park, C., & Son, J. B. (2009). Implementing computer-assisted language learning in the EFL classroom: Teachers’ perceptions and perspectives. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 5(2), 80–101. https://doi.org/10.5172/ijpl.5.2.80
Nussbaum, J. F. (1992). Effective teacher behaviors. Communication Education, 41(2), 167-180. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529209378878
Office of the Teacher Civil Service and Educational Personnel Commission. (2011) Circular letter of OTEPC. OTEPC. https://circular62.otepc.go.th/v1_t_circualr_booklist.php
Onyema, E. M., Eucheria, N. C., Obafemi, F. A., Sen, S., Atonye, F. G., Sharma, A., & Alsayed, A. O. (2020). Impact of Coronavirus pandemic on education. Journal of Education and Practice, 11(13), 108–121.
Oyedotun, T. D. (2020). Sudden change of pedagogy in education driven by COVID-19: Perspectives and evaluation from a developing country. Research in Globalization, 2, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resglo.2020.100029
Puentedura, R. (2006). Transformation, technology, and education [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/
Rossman, G. B., & Rallis, S. F. (2012). Learning in the field: An introduction to qualitative research (3rd ed.). SAGE.
SEAMEO Regional Centre for Higher Education and Development. (2021, September 26). The 8th Meeting of the Working Group on Student Mobility and Quality Assurance of Higher Education among ASEAN Plus Three Countries (APT WG). SEAMEO RIHED. https://rihed.seameo.org/the-8th-meeting-of-aptwg/
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013- 32 189X%28198602%2915%3A2%3C4%3ATWUKGI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
Tadesse, S., & Muluye, W. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on education system in developing countries: A review. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 8(10), 159–170.
Tafazoli, D. (2021). Language teachers’ professional development and new literacies: An integrative review. Aula Abierta. https://redined.educacion.gob.es/xmlui/handle/11162/210408
Thai Post. (2021, June 20). ดุุสิิตโพล’ เปิิดข้้อมููลสำรวจ พบครูู-นัักเรีียน ยัังไม่่พร้้อมสำหรัับการเรีียนออนไลน์์ [Dusit Poll revealed that teachers and students are not ready for online learning]. Thai Post. https://www.thaipost.net/main/detail/106932
Thongsri, N., Shen, L., & Bao, Y. (2019). Investigating factors affecting learner’s perception toward online learning: Evidence from ClassStart application in Thailand. Behaviour & Information Technology, 38(12), 1243–1258.