Causal Models of Loyalty of Government Banks’ Customers

Main Article Content

Sarin Khuntiwattanakul
Amara Rattakorn
Nak Gulid


The objective of this study was to test the causal model of loyalty of government banks’ customers with empirical data. The research design was a quantitative one. The instrument used was online questionnaire. Sample of this research were the 640 government banks’ customers using multistage sampling method. Statistics used in data analysis were descriptive statistic and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).

The result of the research found that the causal model of loyalty of government banks’ customers comprised 3 independent variables; corporate social responsibility of government banks, service quality, and bank image, 1 mediator variable; trust, and 1 dependent variable; customers’ loyalty. It was also found that the independent variables positively influenced mediator variable and dependent variable as well. Therefore, customers’ loyalty should be focused as a holistic. The government banks should have a quality management system and improve work system by using information and digital technologies, for reliable, quick and efficient services. Moreover, the stakeholders should have the opportunity to participate in bank activities.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khuntiwattanakul, S., Rattakorn, A., & Gulid, N. (2020). Causal Models of Loyalty of Government Banks’ Customers. Ph.D. In Social Sciences Journal, 10(1), 225–242. Retrieved from
Research Article


Aaker, D. A. (2008). Strategic market management. John Wiley & Sons.

Anwar, A., Gulzar, A., Sohail, F. B., & Akram, S. N. (2011). The impact of brand Image, trust, affect on brand extension attitude: The mediating role of brand loyalty. International Journal of Economics And Management Sciences, 1(5), 73-79.

Arthur, D. Little. (2002). Economic Effects of the EU Substances Policy. Wiesbaden.

Biel, A. L. (1992). How brand image drives brand equity. Journal of Advertising Research, 32(6), RC6-12.

Bigge, M. L. (1982). Learning theories for teachers (4th ed.). Harper & Row.

Boonsart, W., & Chaisuwan, B. (2016). CSR: Attitudes, and reactions to service quality, corporate image, trust, purchase intention and word of mouth in Generation C consumer groups. Journal of Communication and Management NIDA, 2(2), 1-18. [in Thai].

Bourdeau, B. L. (2005). A new examination of service loyalty: Identification of the antecedents and outcomes of additional loyalty framework. Doctoral dissertation. Florida University.

Britt, S. H. (1979). Consumer behavior and the behavioral sciences: Theories and applications. Huntington Robert.

Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizon, 34(4), 39-48.

Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrived from

Daft, R. L. (2006). The new era of management. South Western.

Griffin, J. (1995). Customer loyalty: How to earn it, how to keep it. Jossey-Bass.

Gronroos, C. (2001). The perceived service quality concept-amistake?. Managing Service Quality, 11(3), 150-152.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Pearson Education International.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualization, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.

Kotler, P. (2000). Marketing management (10th ed). Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: Doing the most good for your Company and cause. John Wiley & Sons.

Laokamalad, W. (2015). A causal relationship model of the influences of perceived economic value and brand image on trust, Customer Satisfaction, Word of mouth and Revisit of GBX TRAVEL CO.,LTD. Bangkok University, Graduate School. [in Thai]

Larzelere, R., & Huston, T. (1980). The dyadic trust scale: Toward understanding interpersonal trust in close relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42(3), 595-604.

Lovelock, H. C. (1996). Managing services. McGraw-Hill.

Mandhachitara R., Poolthong Y. (2011). A model of customer loyalty and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(2), 122-133.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734.

Meearsa, S., & Laksitamas, P. (2016). Factors influencing brand quality equity components for e-marketplace in Thailand. Journal Humanities and Social Sciences, 24(44), 277-299. [In Thai]

Moorman, C., Zaltman, G., & Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and users of market research: The dynamics of trust within and between organizations. Journal of Marketing Research, 29(3), 314–328.

Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.

Muangphan, A. (2017). The influences of service quality and perceived price value on trust, customer satisfaction, word of mouth and customer revisit of Bangplee Driving Range. Bangkok University, Graduate School. [In Thai]

Nak Gulid. (2007). Customer loyalty in the luxury hotel industry a cross cultural perspective. Thammasat University, Faculty of Commerce and Accountancy.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1991). Refinement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale. Journal of Retailing, 67(4), 420-450.

Penchansky, R., & Thomas, J. W. (1981). The concept of access definition and relation to consumer satisfaction. Medical Care, 19(2), 127-140.

Pimsaard, W. (2015). The influences of perceived organizational image affects to service loyalty through perceived service quality of Jurassic water park, Nakhornpathom. Slipakorn University, Graduate School. [In Thai]

Pin, L., & Hsin-Hui, L. (2003). A customer loyalty model for E-cervice ccontext. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 4(4), 156–167.

Pinthong, S., & Laksitamas, P. (2015). Model for structural equation of market assessment related to impact on resort’s customers loyalty. Doctoral dissertation of business administration, Siam University. [In Thai]

Pungpipat, S. (2015). The influence of service quality, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and trust on consumer’s purchase intention of life insurance in Bangkok Area. Bangkok University, Graduate School. [In Thai]

Reina, D. S., & Reina, M. L. (1999). Trust and betrayal in the workplace: Building effective in your organization. Berrett Koehler.

Sabaibang, N. (2010). Service quality of Bank for Agricultural and Agricultural Cooperative, Mejo Branch. Maejo University. [in Thai]

Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginnerrs guide to tructural Equation Modeling: SEM. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Stern, N. (1997). Promoting an effective market economy in a changing world. Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Pearson Education.