The Inverted U Relationship between Anxiety and Academic Achievement in Statistics of Bangkok University Students

Main Article Content

Marisa Torteeka


This study aims to examine the possibility of the inverted U of quadratic relationship between statistics anxiety and academic achievement in statistics of Bangkok University students. The Statistics Anxiety Ratings Scale (STARS), developed by Cruise and Wilkinsand the Work Value Survey’s Achievement Scale, developed by Schwartz were conducted with a total of 197 Communication Arts students, who enrolled in a Statistics for Social Science course in the second semester of the academic year 2013, in conjunction with 6 tests during the term. The obtained data were analyzed by the multivariate repeated measure analysis of variance, the correlation analysis and the hierarchically nested regressions analysis. The findings were that as the term progressed, the statistics anxiety decreased, and also strongly related to the academic achievement. The Inverted U of quadratic model was a better predictor of the academic achievement than linear model, indicating a mid-range optimal level of statistics anxiety provided the highest academic achievement in statistics course. Besides, it was found that the need for achievement did not mediate the relationship between statistics anxiety and academic achievement of the students.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บทความวิจัย (Research Articles)


Barkley, C. A. (1995). A Study of Misconceptions in Statistics and Statistics Anxiety : Affect and Performance in an Undergraduate Math Course. [Online]. Available : [2013, November 20].
Berk, R. A. and J. P. Nanda. (1998). Effects of Jocular Instructional Methods on Attitude, Anxiety, and Achievement in Statistics Courses. [Online]. Available : [2013, December 3].
Bhuain, S. N., B. Menguc and R. Borsboom. (2005). Stressors and Job Outcomes in Sales: A Triphasic Model versus a linear-quadraticinteractive Model. [Online]. Available : [2013, October 22].
Cruise, R. and E. Wilkins. (1980). STARS : Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Unpublished manuscript, Andrews University, Michigan.
Cruise, R., R. Cash. and D. Bolton. (1985). “Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Statistical Anxiety.” ASA Proceedings of the Section on Statistical Education Section. pp. 92-97. Alexandria, VA : American Statistical Association.
Feather, N. T., M. A. Norman and A. Worsley. (1998). “Values and Valences : Variables Related to the Attractiveness and Choice of Food in Difference Contexts.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28(7) : 639-656.
Gal, I. and L. Ginsburg. (1994). “The Role of Beliefs and Attitudes in Learning Statistics: Towards an Assessment Framework.” Journal of Statistics Education. 2 : 1-54.
Kais, K. and L. Raudsepp. (2004). “Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and Self-confidence in Athletic Performance of Beach Volleyball.” Perceptual and Motor Skills. 98(2) : 439-449.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J. and V. A. Wilson. (2003). Statistics Anxiety : Nature, Etiology Antecedents, Effects, and Treatments– a Comprehensive Review of the Literature. [Online]. Available : [2014, May 15].
Onwuegbuzie, A. J. and M. Seaman. (1995). “The Effect of Time Constraints and Statistics Test Anxiety on Test Performance in a Statistics Course.” Journal of Experimental Education. 63(2) : 115-124.
Sarid, O. and Orthers. (2004). Academic Stress, Immunological Reaction, and Academic Performance among Students of Nursing and Physiotherapy. [Online]. Available : [2013, October 25].
Yerkes, R. and Dodson, J. (1908). The Relation of Strength of Stimulus to Rapidity of Habitformation. [Online]. Available : [2013, November 20].
Zanakis, S. H. and E. R. Valenzi. (1997). Student Anxiety and Attitudes in Business Statistics. [Online]. Available : http://heldref-publications. metapress/citation. [2014, April 29].
Zeidner, M. (1991). “Statistics and Mathematics Anxiety in Social Science Students : Some Interesting Parallels”. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 61(3) : 319-328.