บาเกียว สุนทรียะเมือง และสำนึกอาณานิคมในฟิลิปปินส์

Main Article Content

นฤมล กล้าทุกวัน

บทคัดย่อ

บทความนี้มุ่งศึกษาพัฒนาการของบาเกียว เมืองสำคัญของลูซอนตอนเหนือ ประเทศฟิลิปปินส์ นับตั้งแต่การเริ่มรุกเข้ามาของสเปน การก่อร่างสร้างสถานีขุนเขาโดยเจ้าอาณานิคมอเมริกัน จนถึงการฟื้นฟูเมืองช่วงหลังสงครามและการเติบโตจนกลายเป็นศูนย์กลางของลูซอนตอนเหนือดังเช่นปัจจุบัน โดยชี้ให้เห็นว่าภายใต้กระแสวิวาทะเกี่ยวกับสำนึกอาณานิคมและสถานะทางประวัติศาสตร์ของเจ้าอาณานิคมที่ดำเนินไปอย่างคึกคักในแวดวงการศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์ฟิลิปปินส์นั้น หากหวนมาพิจารณาประเด็นเหล่านี้ในบาเกียวจะพบว่า อิทธิพลอเมริกันยังคงฝังรากลึกผ่านภูมิทัศน์ สถานที่ เรื่องเล่า และการจดจำในลักษณะต่าง ๆ ภาพฝันถึงอดีตอันรุ่งเรืองภายใต้การปกครองของอเมริกันและรสนิยมต่อความงามในแบบเจ้าอาณานิคมอเมริกันยังคงเป็นคำอธิบายสำคัญต่อการนิยามเมืองบาเกียวของผู้คนในปัจจุบัน รวมทั้งในหมู่ปัญญาชนท้องถิ่นด้วยเช่นกัน

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บท
บทความวิจัย

References

ทวีศักดิ์ เผือกสม. เรย์นัลโด อิเลโต้: มวลชนคนชั้นล่าง ประวัติศาสตร์แห่งชาติ และความรู้แบบอาณานิคม. กรุงเทพฯ: สมมติ, 2560.

สิริฉัตร รักการ. ประวัติศาสตร์นิพนธ์ฟิลิปปินส์กับชะตากรรมของชาติ: อาการตาสว่างกับอารมณ์ค้างแบบหลังอาณานิคม. กรุงเทพฯ: Illuminations Editions, 2561.

Abinales, Patricio N., and Donna J. Amoroso. State and Society in the Philippines. Lanham, New York, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.

Afable, Patricia O. "Building Bridges in a Faraway Place: Japanese Pioneers in Baguio and Benguet History." In Japanese Pioneers in the Northern Philippine Highlands: A Centennial Tribute, edited by Patricia O. Afable, 3-57. Baguio City: Filipino-Japanese Foundation of Northern Luzon, 2004.

Aiken, S. Robert. "Early Penang Hill Station." Geographical Review 77, no. 4 (1987): 421-439.

Baguio Centennial Commission. Builders of Baguio. Baguio City: Baguio Centennial Commission, 2010.

Bhattacharya, Nandini. "Leisure, Economy and Colonial Urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930." Urban History 40, no. 3 (2013): 442-461.

Brody, David Eric. "Building Empire: Architecture and American Imperialism in the Philippines." Journal of Asian American Studies 4, no. 2 (2001): 123-145.

City of Baguio. “Preface,” In Memoirs of Baguio, edited by Lazaro P. Gutierrez, vi. Baguio City: Summer Capital, 1960.

Constantino, Renato. Neocolonial Identity and Counter-consciousness: Essays on Cultural Decolonization. London: Merlin Press, 1978.

Corpuz, Arturo G. The Colonial Iron Horse: Railroads and Regional Development in the Philippines 1875-1935. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1999.

Crossette, Barbara. The Great Hill Stations of Asia. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Cruz, Gladys A., Fe Marie A. Gacad, Lourdes A. Hamada, Raymond D. Rovillos, and Florence T. Salinas. Urbanization in Medium Sized Towns in Third World Countries, a Comparative Study of the Philippines, Thailand and Kenya: A Report on Baguio City, Philippines. Baguio City: Cordillera Studies Center, University of the Philippines Baguio, 1993.

Cullinane, Michael. Ilustrado Politics: Filipino Elite Responses to American Rule, 1898-1908. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2003.

Delias, Dina, and Patrick Daly. "The Challenges of Disaster Risk Reduction in Rapidly Expanding Urban Environments: Baguio City, Philippines since the 1990 Luzon Earthquake." In Rebuilding Asia Following Natural Disasters: Approaches to Reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific Region, edited by Patrick Daly and R. Michael Feener, 57-80. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Evangelista, Oscar L. Icons and Institutions: Essays on the History of the University of the Philippines, 1952-2000. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2008.

Finin, Gerard A. The Making of the Igorot: Contours of Cordillera Consciousness. Quezon City: SDMU Press, 2005.

Glorioso, Romella S. "A Bioregion in Jeopardy: The Strategic of Amenity Migration in Baguio, the Philippines." In The Amenity Migrants: Seeking and Sustaining Mountains and Their Cultures, edited by Laurence A. G. Moss, 261-277. Cambridge, MA: CABI, 2006.

Goda, Toh. "Postcolonialism and Local Politics in Baguio City, Northern Luzon, Philippines." In Post Colonialism and Local Politics in Southeast Asia, edited by Toh Goda, 106-141. Quezon City: New Day, 2003.

Goerg, Odile. "From Hill Station (Freetown) to Downtown Conakry (First Ward): Comparing French and British Approaches to Segregation in Colonial Cities at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century." Canadian Journal of African Studies 32, no. 1 (1998): 1-31.

Gutierrez, Lazaro P., ed. Memoirs of Baguio. Baguio City: Summer Capital, 1960.

Haban, Olivia M. "Gold Mining in Benguet to 1898." Philippine Studies 48, no. 4 (2000): 455-487.

Hill, Hal, Arsenio M. Balisacan, and Sharon Faye A. Piza. "The Philippines and Regional Development." In The Dynamics of Regional Development: The Philippines in East Asia, edited by Arsenio M. Balisacan and Hal Hill, 1-47. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2007.

Ileto, Reynaldo Clemeña. Filipinos and Their Revolution: Event, Discourse, and Historiography. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1998.

Jutla, Rajinder S. "Visual Image of the City: Tourists' Versus Residents' Perception of Simla, a Hill Station in Northern India." Tourism Geographies 2, no. 4 (2000): 404-420.

Kennedy, Dane. The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Kenny, Judith T. "Claiming the High Ground: Theories of Imperial Authority and the British Hill Stations in India." Political Geography 16, no. 8 (1997): 655-673.

King, Anthony D. Colonial Urban Development: Culture, Social Power and Environment. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976.

Kirsch, Scott. "Aesthetic Regime Change: The Burnham Plans and US Landscape Imperialism in the Philippines." Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints 65, no. 3 (2017): 315-356.

Kleibert, Jana Maria. "Strategic Coupling in 'Next Wave Cities': Local Institutional Actors and the Offshore Service Sector in the Philippines." Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 35, no. 2 (2014): 245-260.

Mayo, Frederic G. "From Kafagway to Baguio." In Baguio City on Its 89th Year: A Brief History of Baguio Barangays, 11-15. Baguio City: City Government of Baguio, 1998.

McKay, Deirdre. "Rethinking Indigenous Place: Igorot Identity and Locality in the Philippines." The Australian Journal of Anthropology 17, no. 3 (2006): 291-306.

McKenna, Rebecca Tinio. American Imperial Pastoral: The Architecture of U.S. Colonialism in the Philippines. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

Michaud, Jean, and Sarah Turner. "Contending Visions of a Hill-Station in Vietnam." Annals of Tourism Research 33, no. 3 (2006): 785-808.

Michaud, Jean, and Sarah Turner. "Reaching New Heights. State Legibility in Sa Pa, a Vietnam Hill Station." Annals of Tourism Research 66 (2017): 37-48.

Morley, Ian. "Baguio: A Mismanaged Evolutionary Narrative of the City Beautiful to the City Problematic." Asian Geographer 35, no. 2 (2018): 1-19.

Morley, Ian. "The Cultural Expansion of America: Imperialism, Civic Design and the Philippines in the Early 1900s." European Journal of American Culture 29, no. 3 (2010): 229-251.

Prill-Brett, June. Baguio: A Multi-Ethnic City and the Development of the Ibaloy as an Ethnic Minority. Baguio City: Cordillera Studies Center, University of the Philippines Baguio, 1996.

Prill-Brett, June. "The Ethnohistory of Baguio: From the Pre-Colonial to the American Colonial Period." In Tradition and Transformation Studies on Cordillera Indigenous Culture, edited by Defin Tolentino, Jr., 261-290. Baguio City: Cordillera Studies Center, University of the Philippines Baguio, 2015.

Rambo, A. Terry, Robert R. Reed, Le Trong Cuc, and Michael R. DiGregorio. The Challenges of Highland Development in Vietnam. Hawaii: East-West Center Program on Environment, 1995.

Reed, Robert R. City of Pines: The Origins of Baguio as a Colonial Hill Station and Regional Capital. Rev. ed. Baguio City: A-Seven, 1999.

Republic of the Philippines. City of Baguio. Office of the City Council. Regular Meeting Held on September 3, 1959, In Memoirs of Baguio, edited by Lazaro P. Gutierrez. Baguio City: Summer Capital, 1960.

Sacareau, Isabelle. "Himalayan Hill Stations from the British Raj to Indian Tourism." European Bulletin of Himalayan Research 31 (2007): 30-45.

Scheerer, Otto. "On Baguio’s Past (Chapters from Local History and Tradition)." The Archive: A Collection of Papers Pertaining to Philippine Linguistics, Accessory Paper No. 1 (1931–1932).

Shaw, Mary. "Some South India Hill Stations." Scottish Geographical Magazine 59, no. 3 (1944): 81-87.

Singh, S.K., and Prithvish Nag. Tourism and Trekking in Nainital Region. New-Delhi: Concept, 1999.

Spencer, Joseph E., and William L. Thomas. "The Hill Stations and Summer Resorts of the Orient." The Geographical Review 38, no. 4 (October 1948): 637-651.

"Stuck in Baguio Traffic." Philippine Daily Inquirer, November 15, 2017, http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/945291/stuck-in-baguio-traffic#ixzz51TymjGpB (accessed July 1, 2019).

Tolentino, Jr., Delfin, ed. Fragments of a City’s History: A Documentary History of Baguio. Baguio City: Cordillera Studies Center, University of the Philippines Baguio, 2009.

Weebers, Robert C.M., and Hanizah Idris. "Decisions Made on the Development of the Hill Station of Cameron Highlands from 1884 Till Present Day." Journal of Surveying, Construction and Property 7, no. 1 (2016): 1-11.

Yeoh, Seng-Guan. ""Beyond the Commerce of Man": Street Vending, Sidewalks, and Public Space in a Mountain City in the Philippines." Urban Anthropology 40, no. 3-4 (2011): 285-317.