Motivations of Professional Football League Spectators in Thailand

Main Article Content

Narongrid Nimmark


This research aimed to compare motivations of professional football league spectators characterized by their personal characteristics. The samples were 1,000 spectators attending the Toyota Thai League match at ten football stadiums. The questionnaire was used as the research instrument. The statistics used for data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, T-test and One-Way Analysis of Variance/ ANOVA. The results were as follows.

  1. The overall motivations of the spectators was at a high level. When each aspect was examined, two aspects rated the highest were pride of locality and feeling of successfulness. They were followed by the affection of football, Escape from the bustle of daily routine was the aspect rated lowest.

  2. When spectator’s motivation was examined based on their personal characteristics, it was revealed that the gender, age, and marital status were not the factors of motivation different but education level, occupation, and monthly income affected the overall motivation of football spectator at a statistical significant of 0.1.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


1. การกีฬาแห่งประเทศไทย. (2557). แผนยุทธศาสตร์การกีฬาแห่งประเทศไทย (พ.ศ. 2557-2559). กรุงเทพมหานคร: การกีฬาแห่งประเทศไทย.
2. การกีฬาแห่งประเทศไทย. (2560). แผนยุทธศาสตร์การกีฬาแห่งประเทศไทย (พ.ศ. 2560-2564). กรุงเทพมหานคร: การกีฬาแห่งประเทศไทย.
3. กิตติคุณ บุญเกตุ และปรีชา วิจิตรธรรมรส. (2557). ปัจจัยที่มีอิทธิพลต่อการซื้อผลิตภัณฑ์สโมสรฟุตบอลบุรีรัมย์ยูไนเต็ดของผู้บริโภคในจังหวัดบุรีรัมย์. วารสารจันทรเกษมสาร. 20(38): 125-132.
4. วุฒิ สุขเจริญ. (2559). พฤติกรรมผู้บริโภค. (พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 2). กรุงเทพมหานคร: จีพีไซเบอร์พรินท์.
5. A.T. Kearney Inc., (2014). Winning in the business of sports. Retrieved October 7, 2016, from
6. Beccarini, C. and Ferrand, A. (2006). Factors Affecting Soccer Club Season Ticket Holders’ Satisfaction: The Influence of Club Image and Fans’ Motives. European Sport Management Quarterly. 6(1): 1-22.
7. Cottingham, M., Carroll, M., Phillips, D., Karadakis., K., Gearity, B. and Drane, D. (2014). Development and validation of the motivation scale for disability sport consumption. Sport Management Review. 17(1): 49-64.
8. Dunning, E. (1999). Sport Matters: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilization. New York. NY: Routledge.
9. Funk, C.D. (2008). Consumer Behaviour in Sport and Events Marketing Action. Burlington, MA :Butterworth-Heinemann
10. Funk, D., Alexandris, K. and McDonald, H. (2016). Consumer Behavior in Sport and Events: Marketing Strategy. London: Routledge Publications.
11. Funk, D. C., Beaton, A. and Alexandris, K. (2012). Sport consumer motivation: Autonomy and control orientations that regulate fan behaviours. Sport Management Review. 15(3): 355-367.
12. Funk, D. C., Filo, K., Beaton, A. A. and Pritchard, M. P. (2009). Measuring the motives of sport event attendance: Bridging the academic-practitioner divide to understanding behavior. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 18: 126–138.
13. Funk, D. C. and James, J. (2001). The Psychological Continuum Model: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding an Individual's Psychological Connection to Sport. Sport Management Review. 4(2): 119-150. doi: 3523(01)70072-1
14. Funk, D.C., Mahony, D.F., Nakazawa, M. and Hirakawa, S. (2001). Development of the Sports Interest Inventory (SII): implications for measuring unique consumer motives at sporting events. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. 3: 291–316.
15. Funk, D.C., Mahony, D.F. and Ridinger, L. (2002). Characterizing consumer motivation as individual difference factors: augmenting the Sport Interest Inventory(SII) to explain level of spectator support. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 11: 33–43.
16. Funk, D.C., Ridinger, L.L. and Moorman, A.M. (2003). Understanding consumer support: extending the Sport Interest Inventory (SII) to examine individual differences among women’s professional sport consumers. Sport Management Review. 6(1): 1–31.
17. Hoffman, K.D. and Bateson, E. G. (2010). Services Marketing: Concepts, Strategies, & Cases. (4th Ed.). Ohio: South Western Cengage Learning.
18. Izzo, G. M., Munteanu, C., Langford, B. E., Ceobanu, C., Dumitru. I. and Nichifor, F. (2011). Sport fan’s motivations: an investigation of Romanian soccer spectators. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies. 5: 1-13.
19. Kim, Y. K. and Trail, G. (2011). A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Relationships between Sport Consumers and Sport Organizations: A Relationship Quality Approach. Journal ofSport Management. 25(1): 57-69. doi:10.1123/jsm.25.1.57
20. Kim, Y. K., Trail, G. and Ko, Y. J. (2011). The Influence of Relationship Quality on Sport Consumption Behaviors: An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Quality Framework. Journal of Sport Management. 25(6): 576-592. doi:10.1123/jsm.25.6.576
21. Kotler, P. and Keller, K. L. (2012). Marketing management. (14 ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
22.Mahony, D. F., Nakazawa, M., Funk, D. C., James, J. D. and Gladden, J. M. (2002). Motivational Factors Influencing the Behaviour of J. League Spectators. Sport Management Review. 5(1): 1-24. doi:
23. McDonald, M.A., Milne, G.R. and Hong, J. (2002). Motivational factors for evaluating sport spectator and participant markets. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 11(2): 100-113.
24. Mehus, I. (2005). Sociability and excitement motives of spectators attending entertainment sport events: spectators of soccer and ski-jumping. Journal of Sport Behavior. 28(4): 333-350.
25.Merelo, J., Mora, A. and Cotta, C. (2013). Complex systems in sports: introduction to the special issue. Journal of Systems Science and Complexity, 26(1), 1-3.
26. Milne, G. R. and McDonald, M. A. (1999). Sport marketing: Managing the exchange process. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
27. Mullin, B. J., Hardy, S. and Sutton, W. (2014). Sport Marketing. (4 ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
28. Schiffman, L. G., Kanuk, L. L. and Hansen, H. (2012). Consumer Behaviour: A European Outlook. (2 ed.). Harlow, UK: Financial Times-Prentice Hall.
29. Tokuyama, S. and Greenwell, C. (2011). Examining similarities and differences in consumer motivation for playing and watching soccer. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 20: 148-156.
30. Trail, G. T. and James, J. D. (2001). The motivation scale for sport consumption: Assessment of the scale’s psychometric properties. Journal of Sport Behavior. 24(1): 108–127 .
31. Wann, D. L. (1995). Preliminary validation of the sport motivation scale. Journal of Sport and Social. 19(1): 377–397.
32. Wann, D., Grieve, F., Zapalac, K. and Pease, D. (2008). Motivational profiles of sport fans of different sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 17(1): 6-19.
33. Won, J. and Kitamura, K. (2007). Comparative analysis of sport consumer motivations between South Korea and Japan. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 16(2): 93-105.