A study of leadership in The Romance of the Three Kingdoms through the Theory of Personality Psychology

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Bussadee Onsiriwan


This research aims to study and explain the behavior and decisions of leaders in various situations as portrayed in The Romance of the Three Kingdoms through the prism of personality psychology. The text used is from the new Thai-translated version by Wanwai Phathanothai. The selected leaders were Liu Bei, Cao Cao, and Sun Quan. The personality psychology theories of Alfred Adler, Abraham Maslow, Karen Horney, and Carl Ransom Rogers were employed to provide an analytical framework. The research found that all three leaders shared the same ultimate goal of achieving their own potential: to uplift the quality of life of the people in their territory and to govern them with peace and happiness. The main differences among the three leaders were their ideologies and their methods. Of the three leaders, only Sun Quan achieved self-actualization as he was able to protect the Kingdom of Wu throughout his entire reign. Nevertheless, all three leaders possessed one essential leadership characteristic which was creativity. Liu Bei was able to use this quality to survive and transform crises into opportunities. Cao Cao used his creativity to gain more power while Sun Quan used it to manage his subordinates by putting the right man in the right job. Hence, this creativity strongly empowered them to become great leaders of their realms. Thus, studying the leaders in this literature through the prism of personality psychology allows the reader to realize their differences and understand their personalities, which then enabled a greater understanding of the work.


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บทความวิจัย (Research Articles)


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