Main Article Content

ธัญสินี เลิศศิริวรพงศ์


       China has more than 5,000 years of civilization. The Chinese communication methods are quite different from those of other countries, leading to difficulties in negotiations with the Chinese. Having a good understanding of Chinese cultural idiosyncrasies is crucial and can affect the outcome of negotiations. This article aims to study Chinese negotiation styles by linking Hofstede’s cultural dimensions with a collection of Chinese philosophies, e.g. Confucianism, Taoist philosophy, and the classic Chinese text on the Art of War.
       The Chinese have no fixed negotiation style. It is a combination of different roles. The doctrines of ancient Chinese philosophy that influence Chinese thinking include: the concept of honor, collectivism, guanxi (relationships), harmony, compromise, saving face, and the need for victory. The Chinese negotiation style is made up of a combination of the following: (1) a focus on respecting the honor of the negotiating partners; (2) the requirement that the resolution comes from a joint decision; (3) a focus on a compromise in which strategy is used to persuade the opponent to agree in order to win; (4) the belief in flexibility of the rules on the basis of circumstances; (5) a focus on long-term relationships; (6) not revealing direct emotions; and (7) modern Chinese people negotiate through compromise, but always insist on principles.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
เลิศศิริวรพงศ์ ธ. (2019). CHINESE NEGOTIATION STYLES AND CULTURAL FACTORS. Panyapiwat Journal, 11(1), 273–288. Retrieved from
Academic Article


Bendersky, C. & McGinn, K. (2010). Open to negotiation: phenomenological assumptions and knowledge dissemination. Organization Science, 21(3), 781-797.

Chen, C. C. (2018). Yin-yang dialectics and communitarianism in cross-cultural management research. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 25(3), 492-500.

Chen, C., Unal, A., Leung, K. & Xin, K. (2016). Group harmony in the workplace: conception, measurement, and validation. Asia Pacifc Journal of Management, 33(4), 1-32.

Chen, H. J., Tsai, Y. H., Chang, S. H. & Lin, K. H. (2010). Bridging the systematic thinking gap between east and west: An insight into the Yin-Yang-based system theory. Systemic Practice & Action Research, 23(2), 173-189.

Dao, X. Z. (2016). Lao-Tze Tao De Ching. Tainan: Chinese Tripod Publishing Group. [in Chinese]

Du, R., Ai, S. & Brugha, C. M. (2011). Integrating Taoist Yin-Yang thinking with Western nomology: A moderating model of trust in conflict management. Chinese Management Studies, 5(1), 55-67.

Dumblekar, V. (2010). Interpersonal competitiveness: a study of simulation game participants. Paradigm, 14, 1-15.

Fang, T. (2003). A critique of Hofstede’s ffth national culture dimension. Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(3), 347-368.

Fang, T. (2006). Negotiation: the Chinese style. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 21(1), 50-60.

Gao, G. & Ting-Toomey, S. (1998). Communicating Effectively with the Chinese. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Ghauri, P. & Fang, T. (2001). Negotiating with the Chinese: a socio-cultural analysis. Journal of World Business, 36(3), 303-325.

Graf, A., Koeszegi, S. T. & Pesendorfer, E. M. (2012). Cross-cultural negotiations and power distance: Strategies applied by Asian and European buyers and sellers in electronic negotiations. Nankai Business Review International, 3(3), 242-256.

Grennan, M. (2014). Bargaining ability and competitive advantage: empirical evidence from medical devices. Management Science, 60(12), 3011-3025.

Hall, E. T. (1976). Beyond culture. New York: Doubleday.

Hang, L. (2011). Traditional Confucianism and its contemporary relevance. Asian Philosophy, 21(4), 437-445.

He, F. P. (2011). A Complete Set of Three Kingdoms School of Business and The Thirty-Six Stratagems School of Business. Beijing: Zhong Guo Hua Qiao. [in Chinese]

Hewett, K., Money, R. B. & Sharma, S. (2006). National culture and industrial buyer-seller relationships in the United States and Latin America. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34, 386-402.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequence: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and Organizations: Software of Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1).

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J. & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hoon-Halbauer, S. K. (1999). Managing relationships within sino-foreign joint ventures. Journal of World Business, 34(4), 344-371.

Hwang, K. (1987). Face and favor: the Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92(4), 944-974.

Jeanine, K. A., Leanna, L., Martin, B. & Peter, J. R. (2014). Cultural impact of human resource practices on job satisfaction: A global study across 48 countries. Cross Cultural Management, 21(1), 55-77.

Khan, A., Zolkiewski, J. & Murphy, J. (2016). Favour and opportunity: renqing in Chinese business relationships. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 31(2), 83-192.

Li, B. Z. (2014). The differences in styles of Sino-US business negotiations from an intercultural perspective. Marketing Management Review, (11), 118. [in Chinese]

Li, Z. S. (2013). A study of international business negotiation styles based on eastern and western cultural differences. Journal of Hebei United University (Social Science Edition), 13(6), 59-62. [in Chinese]

Luo, Y. (1997). Guanxi and performance of foreign-invested enterprises in China: an empirical inquiry. Management International Review, 37(1), 51-70.

Martin, B. & Larsen, G. (1999). Taming the tiger: key success factors for trade with China. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 17(4), 202-208.

McColl, R., Descubes, I. & Elahee, M. (2017). How the Chinese really negotiate: observations from an Australian-Chinese trade negotiation. Journal of Business Strategy, 38(6), 38-46.

Mencius. (2010). The Four Books and The Five Classics (4th ed.). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. [in Chinese]

Paik, Y. & Tung, R. L. (1999). Negotiating with East Asians: How to attain “win-win” outcomes. Management International Review, 39(2), 103-122.

Pearce, J. & Robinson, R. (2000). Cultivating Guanxi as a foreign investor strategy. Business Horizons, 43(1), 31-38.

Pye, L. (1982). Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation.

Redpath, L. & Nielsen, M. O. (1997). A comparison of native culture, non-native culture and new management ideology. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 14(3), 327-339.

Shi, G., Shi, Y., Chan, A., Liu, M. & Fam, K. (2011). The role of renqing in mediating customer relationship investment and relationship commitment in China. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(4), 496-502.

Shu, W. & Jia, Q. (2013). An analysis of the changes in the style of Chinese business negotiation in Sino-US business negotiations. Market Modernization, 714, 106-107. [in Chinese]

Stark, A., Fam, K., Waller, D. & Tian, Z. (2005). Chinese negotiation practice: a perspective from New Zealand exporters. Cross Cultural Management, 12(3), 85-102.

Sun, G. D. & Di, N. (2014). Research on business negotiation under the background of ChineseAmerican culture. Knowledge Economy, (23), 94-95. [in Chinese]

Tung, R. L. (1994). Strategic management thought in East Asia. Organizational Dynamics, 22(4), 55-65.
UNCTAD. (2018). World Investment Report. New York: United Nations.

Vieregge, M. & Quick, S. (2011). Cross-cultural negotiations revisited: Are Asian generations X and Y members negotiating like their elders? Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 18(3), 313-326.

World Bank. (2018). World Development Indicators database. Retrieved November 1, 2018, from

World Trade Organization. (2017). World Trade Statistical Review 2017. World Trade Organization.
Yang, B. J. (2009). The Analects of Confucius Translation (3rd ed.). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. [in Chinese]

Yeh, R. S. & Lawrence, J. J. (1995). Growth, Individualism and Confucian dynamism: A note on Hofstede’s cultural root to economic. Journal of International Business Studies, 26(3), 655-669.

Yeung, Y. & Tung, R. (1996). Achieving business success in Confucian societies. Organisational Dynamics, 25(2), 54-65.

Zhang, Y. (2005). The influence of cultural factors in international business negotiations. Popular Science & Technology, 82, 121. [in Chinese]

Zheng, X. X. (2015). The influence of cultural differences on Sino-US business negotiations and technic analysis. Market Weekly, (8), 84-85. [in Chinese]