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Kwanchai Khemanijkul


Research and development (R&D) collaboration is recognized as the important mechanism in creating innovation that leads to the competitiveness of the country. However, a large number of R&D collaboration, especially between universities and private establishments, still do has not been achieved as expected by the relevant authorities. With the reason that proximity has been recognized as having a significant relationship with collaboration, this paper therefore reviews literatures published in international journals during the years 2010-2018, in order to study how proximity is related to R&D collaboration process. Study focus 5 types of proximity, consisting of cognitive proximity, organizational proximity, social proximity, institutional proximity, and geographical proximity. The results of the study show that proximity involves 3 steps of R&D collaboration process: 1) network formation 2) innovation creation, and 3) commercialization. Moreover, proximity play in a various role depend on the relevant elements, e.g., fundamental context of the partners, innovation type, the perspective of partners in development, and technology readiness level (TRL), etc. Results of the study leading to draw the conceptual framework about the role of proximity on collaboration between university and private establishment in Thailand, demonstrates the role of proximity which influence directly and indirectly covers all 3 steps of collaboration.


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